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Title:Evaluation of serum protein-based arrival formula and serum protein (Gammulin) on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport and cold) male dairy calves
Author(s):Pineda Baide, Arnulfo
Advisor(s):Drackley, James K.
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):calf
serum protein
acute phase response
blood metabolite
Gammulin
Abstract:Adequate nutrition is important to provide all nutrients for proper health and growth of young calves, especially in the presence of stressors such as cold and transport. Serum protein products have been proposed to improve health and diminish effects of stress in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to assess a serum protein-based arrival formula (AF) and use of a serum protein supplement (G; Gammulin, APC Inc.) in milk replacer for neonatal male calves stressed by transport and cold on performance, morbidity, and mortality. Ninety-three male Holstein calves were stratified by arrival BW and plasma protein concentration, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatments were 1 = control electrolyte, milk replacer without G (E; n = 25); 2 = AF, milk replacer without G (AF; n = 22); 3 = control electrolyte, milk replacer with G (EG; n = 24); and 4 = AF, milk replacer with G (AFG; n = 22). At arrival, calves were fed either AF or a control electrolyte solution. At the next feeding, all calves received either a commercial calf milk replacer (20% CP, and 20% fat; no G supplementation) or the same milk replacer supplemented with G. The G‐supplemented group received 50 g/d of G in the milk replacer during the first 14 d of feeding only. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. Calf health was assessed by daily assignment of scour and respiratory scores. Body weight, withers height, body length, heart girth, hip height, and hip width were measured weekly. Blood samples were taken at d 0 (before treatments), d 2, d 7, d 14, and d 28. Calves were weaned at d 42 and remained in the experiment until d 56. Data were analyzed using the MIXED, GLIMMIX, LIFETEST, and LOGISTIC procedure of SAS (v. 9.2). The environmental temperature during all periods was below the lower critical temperature. During the first 2 wk of dietary treatment, calves fed AF had significantly longer body length (P = 0.05); greater starter DM and CP intakes (P = 0.0007); superior total DM, CP, and ME intakes (P < 0.05); and greater cortisol concentration (P = 0.02) in blood. Supplementation with G resulted in greater BW (P = 0.06); greater milk replacer DM and CP intakes (P < 0.0001); higher total CP intake (P < 0.0001); lower mean respiratory score, less odds for days (P = 0.08) and number of calves (P = 0.0008) with high respiratory score; and greater concentrations of total protein (P = 0.04) and urea N (P = 0.01) in plasma. In addition, during the 8-wk experiment G supplementation resulted in improved mean fecal score (P = 0.02) and less antibiotic treatments per calf (P = 0.05). Mortality was greater (P = 0.02) for calves that did not receive G. Results indicated that a serum protein-supplemented arrival formula improved early starter and total nutrient intakes. Addition of a serum protein product also improved early growth, and decreased morbidity and mortality in transported male calves. Despite the marked reduction in mortality of transported cold-stressed male calves fed the serum protein product, indicators of acute-phase response were not affected; however, protein status of calves may have been improved by early serum protein supplementation.
Issue Date:2012-02-06
Genre:thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/29827
Rights Information:© Copyright by Arnulfo Pineda Baide, 2011
Date Available in IDEALS:2012-02-06
Date Deposited:2011-12


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