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Multi-axial Active Isolation for Seismic Protection of Buildings

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Title: Multi-axial Active Isolation for Seismic Protection of Buildings
Author(s): Chang, Chia-Ming; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.
Subject(s): active base isolation multi-axial actuators bi-directional ground excitations experimental verification hybrid system identification
Abstract: Structural control technology has been widely accepted as an effective means for the protection of structures against seismic hazards. Passive base isolation is one of the common structural control techniques used to enhance the performance of structures subjected to severe earthquake excitations. Isolation bearings employed at the base of a structure naturally increase its flexibility, but concurrently result in large base displacements. The combination of base isolation with active control, i.e., active base isolation, creates the possibility of achieving a balanced level of control performance, reducing both floor accelerations as well as base displacements. Many theoretical papers have been written by researchers regarding active base isolation, and a few experiments have been performed to verify these theories; however, challenges in appropriately scaling the structural system and modeling the complex nature of control-structure interaction have limited the applicability of these results. Moreover, most experiments only focus on the implementation of active base isolation under unidirectional excitations. Earthquakes are intrinsically multi-dimensional, resulting in out-of-plane responses, including torsional responses. Therefore, an active isolation system for buildings using multi-axial active control devices against multi-directional excitations must be considered. The focus of this research is the development and experimental verification of active isolation strategies for multi-story buildings subjected to bi-directional earthquake loadings. First, a model building is designed to match the characteristics of a representative full-scale structure. The selected isolation bearings feature low friction and high vertical stiffness, providing stable behavior. In the context of the multi-dimensional response control, three, custom-manufactured actuators are employed to mitigate both in-plane and out-of-plane responses. To obtain a high-fidelity model of the active isolation systems, a hybrid identification approach is used which combines the advantages of the lumped mass model and nonparametric methods. Control-structure interaction (CSI) is also included in the identified model to further enhance the control authority. By employing the H2/LQG control algorithm, the controllers for the hydraulic actuators promise high performance and good robustness. The active isolation is found to possess the ability to reduce base displacements, as well as producing comparable accelerations over the passive isolation. The proposed active isolation strategies are validated experimentally for a six-story building tested on the six degree-of-freedom shake table in the Smart Structures Technology Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Issue Date: 2011-05
Publisher: Newmark Structural Engineering Laboratory. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Series/Report: Newmark Structural Engineering Laboratory Report Series 030
Genre: Technical Report
Type: Text
Language: English
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/30839
ISSN: 1940-9826
Sponsor: National Science Foundation under awards CMS 03-01140 and CMS 06-00433Taiwan National Science Council Grant NSC-095-SAF-I-564-036-TMS
Rights Information: Copyright held by the authors. All rights reserved.
Date Available in IDEALS: 2012-05-11
 

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