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Title:Drivers of change in the North American electric grid
Author(s):Mohapatra, Saurav
Advisor(s):Overbye, Thomas J.
Department / Program:Electrical & Computer Eng
Discipline:Electrical & Computer Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Frequency disturbance
electromechanical disturbance
disturbance propagation
time delay
power imbalance
wide-area governor response
transient stability
reactive power
voltage support
renewable energy
energy storage
smart devices
controllable power sources
Abstract:In the first part of this thesis, background material will be covered to motivate the research ideas being pursued in relation to electromechanical disturbance propagation, which is caused by an imbalance in power supply and demand at any location of an electric grid. The delay associated with this phenomenon is generally observed in large-scale interconnected power systems, and the impact of large changes in load or generation can be felt over a wide geographic area. A high penetration of solar and wind resources will tend to add more variability in generation, but also decrease the ratio between the total spinning inertia and power being produced. For the same amount of power imbalance, a larger frequency deviation will be observed in a system with higher renewable penetration. To understand the crux of this phenomenon, a relatively small 9-bus system is introduced. Transient analysis is carried out using non-linear and linear models to simulate a fault that causes a sudden disturbance to the power balance at one of the buses. Visualization of the transient response is provided, and a comparison of the time delays associated with the electromechanical disturbance propagation is presented for the 9-bus system. In the second part of this thesis, a literature review of utility-scale energy storage devices is presented, which have a symbiotic relationship with the integration of renewables to balance real power supply. Also, the aggregate effect of smart devices at the residential level is evaluated towards reactive power voltage support. These smart devices are becoming more common, and many of them already possess the hardware and software capabilities to implement reactive power injection control. In the near future, such devices would be dispersed over a large portion of the electric distribution network, thus making distributed reactive voltage support feasible. Network-level benefits of such a scheme are presented using a PowerWorld simulation. Applications are discussed, and a proposed control framework is simulated in Simulink for a single smart device.
Issue Date:2012-05-22
Rights Information:Copyright 2012 Saurav Mohapatra
Date Available in IDEALS:2012-05-22
Date Deposited:2012-05

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