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Title:Quantitative understanding of the role of grain boundaries in polycrystalline deformation via multiscale digital image correlation
Author(s):Abuzaid, Wael Z.M.
Director of Research:Sehitoglu, Huseyin
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Sehitoglu, Huseyin
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Lambros, John; Beaudoin, Armand J.; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Chona, Ravinder
Department / Program:Mechanical Sci & Engineering
Discipline:Mechanical Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Grain Boundaries
Polycrystalline material
Slip transmission
Fatigue crack initiation
Crack length
Digital image correlation
Plastic strain accumulation.
Abstract:In this study, high resolution ex situ digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure plastic strain accumulation in polycrystalline Hastelloy X, a nickel-based superalloy, subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. In addition, the underlying microstructure was characterized with similar spatial resolution using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The experimental results were utilized to investigate the localization of plastic strains in the vicinity of grain boundaries (GBs). Particularly we address the interaction of slip with GBs which can result in slip blockage or slip transmission and investigate how these two possible outcomes of slip-GB interaction influence the plastic strain magnitudes and fatigue crack formation in GB regions. In the first part of this work, we focus on slip transmission across GBs. Strain measurements with sub-grain level spatial resolution were acquired for Hastelloy X deformed plastically in uniaxial tension. The full field DIC measurements show a high level of heterogeneity in the plastic response with large variations in strain magnitudes within grains and across GBs. We used the experimental results to study these variations in strains, focusing specifically on the role of slip transmission across GBs in the development of strain heterogeneities. For every GB in the polycrystalline aggregate, we have established the most likely dislocation reaction and used that information to calculate the residual Burgers vector and plastic strain magnitudes due to slip transmission across each interface. From our analysis, we show an inverse relation between the magnitudes of the residual Burgers vector and the plastic strains across GBs. We therefore emphasize the importance of considering the magnitude of the residual Burgers vector to obtain a better description of the GB resistance to slip transmission, which in turn influences the local plastic strains in the vicinity of grain boundaries. In the second part of this work, we consider fatigue micro-crack formation. It is widely accepted that the localization in plastic strains is a necessary condition and a precursor for the nucleation of fatigue cracks. However a clear and quantitative assessment of the correlation between strain localization and fatigue micro-crack lengths requires further investigation. To address this point, high resolution deformation measurements using DIC were conducted on polycrystalline Hastelloy X subjected to fatigue loading. The sub-grain level strain measurements were made prior to the formation of micro-cracks. The correlation between the localization of plastic strains, very early on during the loading (e.g., less than 1,000 cycles), and the micro-cracks which were detected later in the life of the sample (e.g., around 10,000 cycles) is discussed in this thesis. Particular focus is given to the difference in grain boundary response, either blocking or transmitting slip, and the associated fatigue micro-crack lengths generated in the vicinity of these boundaries. The results show a clear correlation between both the locations and lengths of fatigue micro-cracks and the localization of plastic strains very early in the loading process. In addition, we observed that for the same number of cycles, the transmission of slip across grain boundaries resulted in longer transgranular cracks compared to cracks near grains surrounded by blocking grain boundaries which were shorter cracks and confined within single grains. In the last part of this study, experiments were conducted on Hastelloy X subjected to fatigue loading. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the scatter in fatigue lives under similar loading conditions. We also used a recent novel fatigue model based on persistent slip band (PSB) – GB interaction to investigate the scatter in fatigue lives and shed light into the critical types of GBs which nucleate cracks. The implementation of this model provides simulation results of the scatter in fatigue life, which are consistent with the scatter observed from experiments. Finally, with the use of high resolution strain measurements, we provide a critical evaluation of some aspects of the modeling approach, for example the formation of grain clusters and their influence on fatigue life. Also the role of special GBs, mainly annealing twin boundaries (Σ3 GBs), was evaluated.
Issue Date:2013-02-03
Rights Information:Copyright 2012 Wael Z M Abuzaid
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-02-03
Date Deposited:2012-12

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