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Title:Intake of and attitudes toward soy milk and fruits and vegetables in special supplemental nutrition program for Women Infants and Children (WIC) participants
Author(s):Wheeler, Ashley
Advisor(s):Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M.
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children
Theory of Planned Behavior
Social Cognitive Theory
Behavior Theory
Soy Milk
Fruits and Vegetables
Abstract:Background: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the third largest food assistance program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture. Women and children participating in the WIC program receive vouchers from local clinics for supplemental food as well as nutrition and breastfeeding education and referrals to health and social services. In 2009, revisions were made to the WIC approved foods list to include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and soy foods. Knowledge of the consumption patterns of WIC participants could guide decisions for future WIC packages and education. Objective: To examine soy milk, fruit, and vegetable intake and influencing factors in WIC participants in two Illinois counties. Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys using self-administered questionnaires to examine soy milk and fruit and vegetable intake and influencing factors were utilized. The questionnaire used to assess soy milk intake was based in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The questionnaire used to assess fruit and vegetable intake was based in the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The effect of the WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) on fruit and vegetable intake was evaluated, and a cost comparison between Central Illinois farmers’ markets and grocery stores was performed. Results: Soy milk intake was low. Most lacked knowledge about the health benefits of soy milk and cooking with it. Many (40%) didn’t know soy milk was WIC-approved. Intention to drink soy milk was correlated with TPB variables. Fruit and vegetable intake was higher than the national average but was not significantly different between FMNP users and non-users. Participation in the FMNP was associated with stronger psychosocial variables associated with intake: Stages of Change for vegetable intake, willingness to use the FM voucher in the subsequent year, planning meals or snacks with vegetables, planning meals or snacks with more fruits, and eating two or more servings of vegetables at dinner. Factors explaining variance in fruit and vegetable intake included eating more than one type of fruit or vegetable a day and self-efficacy to eat a variety of vegetables at meals. Cost of fruits and vegetables was significantly higher at farmers’ markets than grocery stores. Conclusion: Many felt soy milk was a healthy food, but intake was low. Efforts to increase knowledge of soy milk in WIC packages and knowledge of soy health benefits and cooking skills could help address these issues. Most participants associated positive health outcome expectancies with fruit and vegetable consumption.
Issue Date:2013-05-24
Rights Information:Copyright 2013 Ashley Wheeler
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-05-24
Date Deposited:2013-05

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