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Title:The inactivation of Coxsackievirus B5 with monochloramine for safe global water
Author(s):Al-Qadi, Dana
Advisor(s):Mariñas, Benito J.
Department / Program:Civil & Environmental Eng
Discipline:Environ Engr in Civil Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):Coxsackievirus
Monochloramine
Inactivation
Water quality
Abstract:Water-borne pathogens, which regularly cause morbidity and mortality, continue to pose a significant obstacle in providing safe global water to the more than 780 million people without access to improved water supply. Coxsackievirus, a RNA water-borne pathogen found worldwide, causes a range of human illnesses including diarrheal diseases and myocarditis. Inactivation of water-borne pathogens has been achieved using disinfectants such as hypochlorous acid or free chlorine. However, Coxsackievirus serotype B5 has demonstrated unique resistance to free chlorine disinfection compared to similar viral pathogens of concern, such as Adenovirus. Due to emerging regulations targeting disinfection byproducts of free chlorine, water utilities are switching to monochloramine as a secondary disinfectant to maintain a residual in distribution systems. Additionally, the use of free chlorine in waters contaminated with ammonia from animal and human waste, a commonality in developing regions with inadequate sanitation, can result in the formation of chloramines. The primary objective of this work is to characterize the kinetics of Coxsackievirus B5 inactivation using monochloramine as a function of temperature and pH conditions relevant to water treatment. The efficiency of dichloramine in viral inactivation was also assessed, and the effect of formaldehyde on monochloramine disinfection of Coxsackievirus B5 was tested. The findings of this work indicate that Coxsackievirus B5 inactivation with monochloramine is affected by both temperature and pH, dichloramine is a relatively ineffective disinfectant, and the presence of formaldehyde does not affect inactivation. The results of this work have implications for future disinfection design in water utilities as well as point-of-use systems for developing and rural regions in dire need of safe water.
Issue Date:2013-05-24
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/44205
Rights Information:Copyright 2013 Dana Al-Qadi
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-05-24
Date Deposited:2013-05


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