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Title:Towards an autologous tissue engineering construct for craniofacial bone repair
Author(s):Maki, Aaron
Director of Research:Wheeler, Matthew B.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Wheeler, Matthew B.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Hurley, Walter L.; Cunningham, Brian T.; Harley, Brendan A.
Department / Program:Bioengineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Adult Stem Cells
Bone Tissue Engineering
Large Animal Models
Bone Fracture Healing
Image Analysis
Platelet-Rich Plasma
Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Abstract:Patients with critical-size bone defects, as a result of trauma, congenital malformations or tumor resections, generally have limited healing without clinical intervention. The autograft is the current standard of care for repair of these defects due to capacity for osteointegration and immunological compatibility. However, potential limitations, such as donor site morbidity, have motivated the development of alternative autologous approaches for the treatment of these defects. Materials used in tissue engineering, such as scaffolds, growth factors and adult stem cells, can be derived from patient blood and adipose tissue and are potential autologous therapeutic options. This dissertation investigates a prospective procedure to improve craniofacial bone healing using fibrin scaffolds and platelet rich plasma from patient blood, and adipose-derived stem cells from liposuction. The objectives of these studies are to evaluate the effects of fibrin scaffolds and platelet-rich plasma on adipose-derived stem cells and their ability to heal critical-size bone defects in a porcine animal model. During coagulation of whole blood, fibrin scaffolds were modified using treatments to reduce red blood cell density and porosity or increase concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. Platelet-rich plasma was collected using an anticoagulant with subsequent centrifugations to acquire the fraction of plasma with high concentrations of growth factor-releasing platelets. Both fibrin scaffolds and platelet rich plasma were cultured with adipose-derived stem cells to determine proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation potential. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and fibrin scaffolds were injected into critical-size defects in the porcine mandible. Analysis of bone healing after 8 weeks indicated higher bone mineral density and bone volume fraction compared to untreated controls for all three treatments using ASCs. Addition of both platelet rich plasma and fibrin scaffolds to autologous ASCs from liposuction improved bone volume fraction of critical-size defects. Based on these results, addition of either platelet-rich plasma or calcium phosphate-fibrin composite scaffolds to autologous adipose-derived stem cells are recommended to for further improvement in healing of critical-sized bone defects.
Issue Date:2013-05-28
Rights Information:Copyright 2013 Aaron Maki
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-05-28
Date Deposited:2013-05

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