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Title:Gastrointestinal microbiota community composition has significant effects on systemic immune responses
Author(s):Schachtschneider, Kyle
Director of Research:Schook, Lawrence B.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Schook, Lawrence B.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):White, Bryan A.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Clark, Sherrie G.
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Gut Microbiome
Oral Microbial Inoculation
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Abstract:This study explored the utility of an oral microbial inoculum as a therapeutic tool to affect systemic immune responses. Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is initiated during birth and continually seeded from the individual’s environment. Gastrointestinal microorganisms for a mutualistic relationship with the host, playing a central role in developing and modulating host immune responses. Animal studies have demonstrated the impact of GI microbiota on the development of GI and systemic immune systems; however, the full spectrum of action of early gastrointestinal tract stimulation and subsequent modulation of systemic immune responses is poorly understood. Human trials have shown the successful use of probiotics and fecal transplantations to treat GI disorders. In addition, patients receiving fecal transplants have also reported improvements in systemic disorders such as multiple sclerosis. These results, in addition to increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases associated with reduced GI microbial diversity has increased interest in the effect of early life GI colonization on the development of the systemic immune system. In order to address this issue, we sought to determine the effects of early life colonization on microbiome composition and systemic immune responses. One group of newly weaned pigs was inoculated with an oral microbial inoculum (modulated), while another group (control) was not. Sequencing results show a successful modulation of the GI microbiome through oral inoculation. The effects of GI microbial modulation on systemic immune responses were evaluated by experimentally infecting with the respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). The M. hyopneumoniae infection study showed beneficial effects of the oral inoculum on systemic immune responses including antibody production, severity of infection and cytokine levels. These results suggest an oral microbial inoculum can be used to modulate microbial communities, as well as have a beneficial effect on systemic immune responses as demonstrated with M. hyopneumoniae infection.
Issue Date:2013-08-22
Rights Information:Copyright 2013 Kyle Schachtschneider
Date Available in IDEALS:2013-08-22
Date Deposited:2013-08

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