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Title:The effects of micro-vortex generators on normal shock wave/boundary layer interactions
Author(s):Herges, Thomas
Director of Research:Elliott, Gregory S.; Dutton, J. Craig
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Elliott, Gregory S.; Dutton, J. Craig
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Bragg, Michael B.; Christensen, Kenneth T.
Department / Program:Aerospace Engineering
Discipline:Aerospace Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI)
normal shock wave
boundary layer
supersonic flow
vortex generators
SWBLI control
shock wave unsteadiness
supersonic inlet
supersonic inlet control
inlet buzz
optical diagnostic techniques
camera housing
schlieren imaging
surface oil flow visualization
pressure sensitive paint
particle image velocimetry
shear stress measurements
format figure references in Microsoft Word
Abstract:Shock wave/boundary-layer interactions (SWBLIs) are complex flow phenomena that are important in the design and performance of internal supersonic and transonic flow fields such as engine inlets. This investigation was undertaken to study the effects of passive flow control devices on normal shock wave/boundary layer interactions in an effort to gain insight into the physics that govern these complex interactions. The work concentrates on analyzing the effects of vortex generators (VGs) as a flow control method by contributing a greater understanding of the flowfield generated by these devices and characterizing their effects on the SWBLI. The vortex generators are utilized with the goal of improving boundary layer health (i.e., reducing/increasing the boundary-layer incompressible shape factor/skin friction coefficient) through a SWBLI, increasing pressure recovery, and reducing flow distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane while adding minimal drag to the system. The investigation encompasses experiments in both small-scale and large-scale inlet testing, allowing multiple test beds for improving the characterization and understanding of vortex generators. Small-scale facility experiments implemented instantaneous schlieren photography, surface oil-flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and particle image velocimetry to characterize the effects of an array of microramps on a normal shock wave/boundary-layer interaction. These diagnostics measured the time-averaged and instantaneous flow organization in the vicinity of the microramps and SWBLI. The results reveal that a microramp produces a complex vortex structure in its wake with two primary counter-rotating vortices surrounded by a train of Kelvin- Helmholtz (K-H) vortices. A streamwise velocity deficit is observed in the region of the primary vortices in addition to an induced upwash/downwash which persists through the normal shock with reduced strength. The microramp flow control also increased the spanwise-averaged skin-friction coefficient and reduced the spanwise-averaged incompressible shape factor, thereby improving the health of the boundary layer. The velocity in the near-wall region appears to be the best indicator of microramp effectiveness at controlling SWBLIs. Continued analysis of additional micro-vortex generator designs in the small-scale facility revealed reduced separation within a subsonic diffuser downstream of the normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. The resulting attached flow within the diffuser from the micro-vortex generator control devices reduces shock wave position and pressure RMS fluctuations within the diffuser along with increased pressure recovery through the shock and at the entrance of the diffuser. The largest effect was observed by the micro-vortex generators that produce the strongest streamwise vortices. High-speed pressure measurements also indicated that the vortex generators shift the energy of the pressure fluctuations to higher frequencies. Implementation of micro-vortex generators into a large-scale, supersonic, axisymmetric, relaxed-compression inlet have been investigated with the use of a unique and novel flow-visualization measurement system designed and successfully used for the analysis of both upstream micro-VGs (MVGs) and downstream VGs utilizing surface oil-flow visualization and pressure-sensitive paint measurements. The inlet centerbody and downstream diffuser vortex-generator regions were imaged during wind-tunnel testing internally through the inlet cowl with the diagnostic system attached to the cowl. Surface-flow visualization revealed separated regions along the inlet centerbody for large mass-flow rates without vortex generators. Upstream vortex generators did reduce separation in the subsonic diffuser, and a unique perspective of the flowfield produced by the downstream vortex generators was obtained. In addition, pressure distributions on the inlet centerbody and vortex generators were measured with pressure-sensitive paint. At low mass-flow ratios the onset of buzz occurs in the large-scale low-boom inlet. Inlet buzz and how it is affected by vortex generators was characterized using shock tracking through high-speed schlieren imaging and pressure fluctuation measurements. The analysis revealed a dominant low frequency oscillation at 21.0 Hz for the single-stream inlet, corresponding with the duration of one buzz cycle. Pressure oscillations prior to the onset of buzz were not detected, leaving the location where the shock wave triggers large separation on the compression spike as the best indicator for the onset of buzz. The driving mechanism for a buzz cycle has been confirmed as the rate of depressurization and repressurization of the inlet as the buzz cycle fluctuates between an effectively unstarted (blocked) inlet and supercritical operation (choked flow), respectively. High-frequency shock position oscillations/pulsations (spike buzz) were also observed throughout portions of the inlet buzz cycle. The primary effect of the VGs was to trigger buzz at a higher mass-flow ratio.
Issue Date:2014-01-16
Rights Information:Copyright 2013 Thomas Herges
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-01-16
Date Deposited:2013-12

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