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Title:Properties of rotating ultracold bosonic quantum gases
Author(s):Baharian Khoshkhou, Soheil
Director of Research:Baym, Gordon A.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Ceperley, David M.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Baym, Gordon A.; DeMarco, Brian L.; Stack, John D.
Department / Program:Physics
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Bose-Einstein condensate
rotating superfluid
vortex lattice
strongly correlated state
metastable current
Abstract:In this dissertation, we study rotational properties of ultracold bosonic quantum gases in two trapped configurations, a quasi-two-dimensional gas in a harmonic trap and a quasi-one-dimensional gas in a toroidal trap. First, we investigate the effects of correlations on the properties of the ground state of the rotating harmonically-trapped Bose gas by adding Bogoliubov fluctuations to the mean-field ground state of an N-particle single-vortex system. We demonstrate that the fluctuation-induced correlations lower the energy compared to that of the mean-field ground state, that the vortex core is pushed slightly away from the center of the trap, and that an unstable mode with negative energy (for rotations slower than a critical frequency) emerges in the energy spectrum, thus, pointing to a better state for slow rotation. We construct mean-field ground states of 0-, 1-, and 2-vortex states as a function of rotation rate and determine the critical frequencies for transitions between these states, as well as the critical frequency for appearance of a metastable state with an off-center vortex and its image vortex in the evanescent tail of the cloud. Then, we show how the configuration-space form of the above-mentioned Bogoliubov ground-state wave function of a bosonic condensate with a single vortex in a harmonic trap can be described in terms of bosonic Jastrow correlations. We then generalize this result to study the effects of such correlations on a mean-field vortex lattice state and show that the included correlations lower the energy below that of the mean-field state. Although the reduction is relatively small, it is a precursor of the more general expected effect of correlations in describing the melting of the vortex lattice at a high angular momentum per particle. Finally, we study the stability and dynamics of an ultracold bosonic gas trapped in a toroidal geometry and driven by rotation in the absence of dissipation. We first delineate, via the Bogoliubov mode expansion, the regions of stability and the nature of instabilities of the system for both repulsive and attractive interaction strengths. To study the response of the system to variations in the rotation rate, we introduce a “disorder” potential, breaking the rotational symmetry. We demonstrate the breakdown of adiabaticity as the rotation rate is slowly varied and find forced tunneling between the eigenstates of the system. The nonadiabaticity is signaled by the appearance of a swallow-tail loop in the lowest-energy level, a general sign of hysteresis. Then, we show that this system is in one-to-one correspondence with a trapped gas in a double-well potential and thus exhibits macroscopic quantum self-trapping. Finally, we show that self-trapping is a direct manifestation of the behavior of the lowest-energy level.
Issue Date:2014-01-16
Rights Information:Copyright 2013 Soheil Baharian Khoshkhou
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-01-16
Date Deposited:2013-12

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