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Title:Nutrition environmental measures for Asian restaurants and Asian grocery stores
Author(s):Cai, Danqian
Advisor(s):Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M.
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Nutrition Environment Measures
Asian Food Environment (Chinese, Thailand, Korean, Japanese) in America
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010
Healthy Eating Index 2010
Asian Diet Culture/Tradition
Food Availability
Facilitators of Healthy Eating
Barriers to Healthy Eating
Asian Grocery Stores
Asian Restaurants
Healthy Restaurant/Grocery Store Score
Urbana IL USA
Abstract:ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a nutritional environmental measures survey for Asian restaurants and grocery stores. Target audience: Educators working with Asian clients. Theory, Prior Research, Rationale: Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) provide valid and reliable observational measures of community and consumer nutrition environments (Saelens, et al. 2007). Although it has been adapted for some international communities, none have addressed the growing Asian population in the United States. Description: A preliminary review compared the food items of the NEMS surveys to the Dietary Guidelines of Americans (2010) and Healthy Eating Index (2010), adding some food categories, modifying for some traditional food preferences. An expert panel consisted of nutrition related professors and experts (n=9) with Asian diet culture background refined the survey further according to their knowledge and experience. Asian restaurants and grocery stores were identified (n=69) and a training protocol developed based on the original NEMS. Observers (n=7) were trained in lab setting and during initial observations. Observers surveyed a sample of restaurants (grocery stores) twice for reliability; two observers surveyed the same restaurant (one of the two rated in one month after the other’s observation) on a sample for inter-rater reliability. Evaluation: Of total 69 restaurants, 9 were no longer in business, 41 agreed to be surveyed at least once, among which 39 had completely three observations; and of 7 grocery stores, 4 agreed and completed all the three observations. Acceptable inter-rater reliability (NEMS-AR 0.22-0.75, NEMS-AS 0.47-0.68) and test-retest reliability (NEMS-AR 0.28-0.83, NEMS-AS 0.54-0.95) were found on the NEMS-AR and NEMS-AS items with most restaurants and all stores had moderate agreement or better, as well as the acceptable percent agreement (NMES-AR 41.6-100.0%, NEMS-AS 25%-100.0%) among raters. Sit-down restaurant (25.19±9.40) scored significantly higher than fast food restaurants (14.20±15.09), and the difference primary came from sub scores of healthy menu item specifics and healthy beverages. No significant difference of total score and most sub scores were found across restaurant types (Chinese, Korean, Thai and Japanese restaurant) and across grocery store types in this study. The percentages of both Asian food outlets were low in fruit, low-sodium options, low-fat milk, and 100% fruit Juice. Only 18.6% of items were found to have significant difference between sit-down and fast-food restaurants. Similarly, most items and NEMS-AR were of no significant differences on the availability across restaurant/store types. Conclusions and Implications: Asian restaurants could improve in some areas (healthy menu items and facilitators of healthy eating) of promoting healthy eating; likewise Asian grocery stores also could improve in some food categories (e.g. dairy products, fresh fruit, and lean meats with nutrient labels). Policy makers and restaurants/stores owners or managers can benefit from this study in efforts to create a healthy eating supported or encouraged Asian diet environment.
Issue Date:2014-05-30
Rights Information:Copyright 2014 Danqian Cai
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-05-30
Date Deposited:2014-05

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