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Title:An exploration of the possible adoption and enforcement of gender equity policies in Nigeria to help deal with matters of sex discrimination in athletics
Author(s):Anaza, Emeka
Director of Research:Kelley, Margaret
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):McDowell, Jacqueline
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Shinew, Kimberly J.; Tainsky, Scott; Kelley, Margaret
Department / Program:Recreation, Sport and Tourism
Discipline:Recreation, Sport, and Tourism
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Gender Equity
Deinstitutionalization
Nigeria
Sports
Change
Abstract:Sport plays an integral part in forming Nigeria’s identity. Most Nigerian men either engage actively or passively in sport; however, the same cannot be said for Nigerian women. There are inherent paternalistic structures institutionalized in Nigeria that frown upon women who participate in athletic activities. Despite the United Nations (UN) call to use sport as a catalyst for development and change, Nigeria has been unable to promote gender equality through increased sport involvement. Nigeria’s National Gender Policy (NGP) was developed to reach the UN’s millennium developmental goals and promote women empowerment, eliminate discriminatory practices, endorse women’s rights, and provide opportunities for Nigerians regardless of sex (NGPSF, 2008). Also, sport participation enhances self-esteem and promotes self-determined values that help buffer against life’s challenges. It also provides a setting to escape the feelings of depression and alienation, while fostering feelings of belonging and self-worth. Despite all of these benefits, women’s athletics in Nigeria is underdeveloped. In direct response to the lower rate of female sport participation, a study was conducted to explore the possibility of adopting and adapting appropriate gender equity athletic policy directives in Nigeria to combat matters of sex discrimination within athletic programs and activities. Using Oliver’s (1992) pressures for deinstitutionalization model as a theoretical framework, this study explored conditions under which Title IX’s athletic policy directives may be employed and outlined factors that may inhibit or encourage its adoption and adaption to deal with sex discrimination in educational institutions. Five major research questions guided this study: what factors will act to pressure the deinstitutionalization of institutionalized practices, norms and behaviors that promote sex discrimination? What factors contribute to sex discrimination and inequity within educational athletic programs and activities in Nigeria? What key elements may strengthen the possibility of implementing and enforcing an athletic gender equity policy like Title IX’s athletic directives? What key elements may debilitate the possibility of implementing and enforcing an athletic gender equity policy like Title IX’s athletic directives? How can a law similar to Title IX help deal with matters of sex discrimination and inequity in educational athletic programs and activities? Sport plays an integral part in forming Nigeria’s identity. Most Nigerian men either engage actively or passively in sport; however, the same cannot be said for Nigerian women. There are inherent paternalistic structures institutionalized in Nigeria that frown upon women who participate in athletic activities. Despite the United Nations (UN) call to use sport as a catalyst for development and change, Nigerian athletic institutions have been unable to promote gender equality through increased sport involvement. Nigeria’s National Gender Policy (NGP) was developed to reach the UN’s millennium developmental goals and promote women empowerment, eliminate discriminatory practices, endorse women’s rights, and provide opportunities for Nigerians regardless of sex. Also, sport participation enhances self-esteem and promotes self-determined values that help buffer against life’s challenges. It also provides a setting to escape the feelings of depression and alienation, while fostering feelings of belonging and self-worth. Despite all of these benefits, women’s athletics in Nigeria is underdeveloped. In direct response to the lower rate of female sport participation, a study was conducted to explore the possibility of adopting and enforcing appropriate gender equity athletic policy directives in Nigeria to combat matters of sex discrimination within athletic programs and activities. Using Oliver’s (1992) pressures for deinstitutionalization model as a theoretical framework, this study explored conditions under which athletic policy directives similar to Title IX’s may be employed. Also, this study outlined factors that may inhibit or encourage the enforcement and implementation of gender equity policies to deal with sex discrimination in educational institutions. Five research questions guided this study: what factors will act to pressure the deinstitutionalization of institutionalized practices, norms and behaviors that promote sex discrimination? What factors contribute to sex discrimination and inequity within educational athletic programs and activities in Nigeria? What key elements may strengthen the possibility of implementing and enforcing an athletic gender equity policy like Title IX’s athletic directives? What key elements may debilitate the possibility of implementing and enforcing an athletic gender equity policy like Title IX’s athletic directives? How can a law similar to Title IX help deal with matters of sex discrimination and inequity in educational athletic programs and activities? Thirty Nigerians provided information on prevailing sex discrimination practices and perceptions of gender equity policies utility in Nigeria. Audio and video recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with NVivo8. Constant comparison was used to analyze data. This method of data analysis allowed the researcher to continuously compare and contrast the contents of participants’ conversation. This study found that adoption and enforcement of an athletic gender equity policy akin to Title IX will help deal with issues of discrimination. However, enforcing such a policy may be difficult because of socio-cultural and psychological factors. In order for Nigeria to reach its NGP objectives and the MDGs, it is critical to deinstitutionalize discriminatory practices and behaviors that impede women and girls from sport.
Issue Date:2014-05-30
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/49819
Rights Information:Copyright 2014 Emeka Anaza
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-05-30
2016-09-22
Date Deposited:2014-05


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