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Title:Effect of level and duration of feeding conjugated linoleic acid in different dietary programs on the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs and on longissiumus muscle quality, belly characteristics, and fat quality measured post mortem
Author(s):Weitekamp, Catherine
Advisor(s):Ellis, Michael
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):Pigs
Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Corn Distiller Dried Grain with Solubles
Abstract:The effect of level and duration of feeding conjugated linoleic acid in different dietary programs on the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs and on Longissiumus muscle quality, belly characteristics, and fat quality measured post mortem was evaluated in a study carried out on a commercial wean-to-finish facility. A randomized complete block design with 15 treatments consisting of different combinations of Dietary Program (i.e., 0% DDGS, 30% DDGS, and DDGS withdrawal [30% DDGS from week 0 to approximately 104 kg and 0% DDGS from approximately 104 kg to end of study]), CLA Inclusion Level (i.e., 0, 0.5, and 1.0%), and CLA Feeding Duration (i.e., 0, 14, and 28 days prior to harvest). The treatments (Trt.) were defined by the combination of Dietary Program, CLA Inclusion level, and CLA Feeding Duration and were as follows: Trt. 1 (0%, 0%, and 0 days), Trt. 2 (30%, 0%, and 0 days), Trt. 3 (Withdrawal, 0%, and 0 days), Trt. 4 (0%, 0.5%, 14 days), Trt. 5 (30%, 0.5%, 14 days), Trt. 6 (Withdrawal, 0.5%, 14 days), Trt. 7 (0%, 0.5%, 28 days), Trt. 8 (30%, 0.5%, 28 days), Trt. 9 (Withdrawal, 0.5%, 28 days), Trt. 10 (0%, 1.0%, 14 days), Trt. 11 (30%, 1.0%, 14 days), Trt. 12 (Withdrawal, 1.0%, 14 days), Trt. 13 (0%, 1.0%, 28 days), Trt. 14 (30%, 1.0%, 28 days), Trt. 15 (Withdrawal, 1.0%, 28 days). Pen was the experimental unit. The study used a total of 3,300 pigs housed in pens of 20 with 11 pens per treatment. This study was carried out from an initial live weight of 92.2 ± 1.20 kg for a fixed-time feeding period of 70 days (to Week 10 of the study), with CLA being fed for the last 14 or 28 days prior to harvest according to treatment. All pigs were individually weighed at the start of the study. Group pen weights were collected on all replicates at the start of study, week 3, 6, 8, and 10 of the study period. At the end of Week 10 of study, all pens in a replicate were taken off test, and sent for harvest on the same day. Carcass, Longissiumus muscle, belly, and fat quality measures were collected after harvest. At approximately 24 h post mortem, a fat sample was taken and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was performed on the sample, to measure iodine value. Including 30% DDGS in the diet reduced (P < 0.05) growth performance (i.e., ADG and G:F), carcass characteristics (i.e., carcass yield and 10th rib backfat depth), belly firmness (i.e., belly flop distance and subjective firmness score), and increased (P < 0.05) iodine value by on average 7.46 g/100g (68.88 to 76.34 g/100g), when compared to pigs fed 0% DDGS. Withdrawing DDGS from the diet for the last 4 wk before harvest increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, carcass yield, belly firmness (i.e., belly flop distance and subjective firmness score), and reduced (P < 0.05) iodine value by on average 3.61 units (76.34 to 72.73 g/100g), when compared to pigs fed 30% DDGS. The level and duration of feeding CLA had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance; however, feeding diets with 1% CLA for 28 days increased (P < 0.05) flop distance and subjective firmness score indicating an improvement in belly firmness. In addition, including CLA at either 0.5 or 1.0% reduced (P < 0.05) iodine value by on average 1.4 and 1.7 g/100g, respectively, and including CLA in the diet for either 14 or 28 days reduced iodine value (P < 0.05) by 1.1 and 2.0 g/100g, respectively, compared to controls (0 % CLA and 0 days). The results of this study suggest that feeding DDGS leads to a reduction in growth performance and carcass and fat quality; however, withdrawing DDGS from the diet 4 wk before harvest and/or feeding CLA can improve some of these measures, particularly, fat quality.
Issue Date:2014-09-16
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/50556
Rights Information:Copyright 2014 Catherine B. Weitekamp
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-09-16
Date Deposited:2014-08


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