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Title:Effective utilization of flywheel energy storage (FES) for frequency regulation service provision
Author(s):Tokombayev, Mirat
Advisor(s):Gross, George
Department / Program:Electrical & Computer Eng
Discipline:Electrical & Computer Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Flywheel energy storage
energy market
Independent System Operator (ISO)
Regional Transmission Organization (RTO)
ancillary service
frequency regulation
Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
Abstract:The deeper penetration of variable energy resources (VERs) in the form of wind farms and solar photovoltaic systems has impacted power system operations and planning in many ways. Today, renewable energy resources constitute a significant portion of new power generation capacity additions. As the outputs of renewable generation resources are function of the climatic conditions at their geographic locations – and over which the resource operators have no control – and the current renewable technologies provide only limited controllability, the renewable outputs are subject to, by and large, uncontrollable, rapid and uncertain changes. Such volatility in the renewable outputs, that may also include intermittent behavior, can affect power systems operations significantly. Indeed, the continual variability impacts introduce new complications due to their interactions with the impacts of the continuously changing loads in the system. In particular, such interactions may exacerbate the challenge to provide the critical function to maintain the supply-demand balance around the clock. Given the limited controllability over the renewable resources, system operators have no choice but to impose additional burdens on the controllable conventional generation resources. Many of these resources, however, have rather slow response times and limited ramping capabilities resulting in less than ideal performance in the provision of the second-by-second supply-demand balance – the so-called frequency regulation service. This service, also known by the technical term of automatic generation control (AGC ), is absolutely essential to maintain the frequency of the power system at its nominal value, which is 60 Hz in the United States and 50 or 60 Hz in other countries. The recent advancements on the storage technology front indicate great potential in terms of applications to power systems for frequency regulation service. A particularly exciting development is the integration into the power system of storage devices known as flywheel energy storage (FES). In this thesis, we investigate the effective utilization of FES for frequency regulation service provision via the competitive markets for such service. The FES utilization in frequency regulation service provision presents a number of challenges. A FES unit has a relatively low energy-to-power ratio, a situation that implies a clear limitation to its ability to provide frequency regulation over longer periods of time in only a single direction. Such a limitation, consequently, constrains the amount of service the FES unit can offer. As the frequency regulation service is procured in the competitive environment through market mechanisms, the FES physical limitations and the uncertainty associated with the second-by-second requirements of the system make the formulation of appropriate offer strategies for a FES unit a challenging task. To address all these challenges, we have developed a comprehensive approach to effectively utilize the FES to provide guaranteed frequency regulation service to the grid. We prepared this thesis to discuss the development of the approach and describe its application to various studies. We demonstrate the capability of the developed approach and quantify the improved performance over existing techniques through various case studies using actual 2011 AGC signal and price data from two large systems – the CAISO and the PJM. The representative results clearly indicate that the proposed approach generates offer strategies that result in better utilization of FES to provide guaranteed frequency regulation service.
Issue Date:2014-09-16
Rights Information:Copyright 2014 Mirat Tokombayev
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-09-16
Date Deposited:2014-08

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