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Title:Emissions from combustion technologies with a focus on brick making and in-home cooking
Author(s):Weyant, Cheryl
Advisor(s):Bond, Tami C.
Department / Program:Civil & Environmental Eng
Discipline:Environ Engr in Civil Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
brick kiln
particle emissions
CO emissions
pottery kiln
black carbon
elemental carbon
organic carbon
emission factor
Abstract:Emissions from seventy household stoves in Tibet and Nepal and thirteen brick kilns in South Asia were measured to quantify aerosol and gaseous pollutant emissions, including particulate matter (PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), carbonaceous particles, and optical scattering and absorption. In addition, a pilot study was conducted of small-scale industry emissions from a restaurant, candy making operation, and two pottery kilns. Emission factors from household stoves were compared across fuel types, stove characteristics, and study region. Stoves measured in Nepal emitted more black carbon when sugarcane was used in the fuel mixture. Chimney stoves had better combustion efficiency and lower emissions than non-chimney stoves and wood fuel produced significantly less PM 2.5 and CO compared to dung fuel in Tibet. Overall, Tibetan stoves had higher emission factors compared to stoves in Nepal or Honduras. Small-scale industry stoves, restaurant and candy making, had similar emission factor magnitudes and particle properties to household stoves. Unlike stoves, the traditional straw pottery kiln had high carbon monoxide emission factors and almost no black carbon emissions (5% of PM 2.5). Conversely, the wood pottery kiln had a much higher percentage of black carbon (78%). In comparison, household stoves in Nepal averaged 22%. Measurements in the exhaust of six brick kiln technologies demonstrate differences in overall emission profiles and relative climate warming resulting from kiln design and fuel choice. Emission factors differed between kiln types, in some cases by an order of magnitude. The brick kilns currently dominating the sector had the highest emission factors of PM 2.5 and light absorbing carbon, while improved Vertical Shaft and Tunnel kilns were lower emitters. An improved version of the most common technology in the region, the zig-zag kiln, was among the lowest emitting kilns in PM 2.5 , CO, and light absorbing carbon. Emission factors measured here are lower than those currently used in emission inventories as inputs to global climate models; 85% lower (PM 2.5) and 35% lower for elemental carbon (EC) for the most common kiln in the region, yet the ratio of EC to total carbon was higher than previously estimated (0.96 compared to 0.47). Total annual estimated emissions from the brick industry are 120 Tg CO2 , 2.5 Tg CO, 0.19 Tg PM 2.5 , and 0.12 Tg EC.
Issue Date:2014-09-16
Rights Information:Copyright 2014 Cheryl Weyant
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-09-16
Date Deposited:2014-08

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