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Title:An experimental study of the flow boiling of refrigerant-based nanofluids
Author(s):Kolekar, Rahul
Director of Research:Jacobi, Anthony M.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Jacobi, Anthony M.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Hrnjak, Predrag S.; Brewster, M. Quinn; Dutton, J. Craig
Department / Program:Mechanical Sci & Engineering
Discipline:Mechanical Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Nanofluids
R134a
carbon dioxide
flow boiling
refrigeration
nucleate boiling
Abstract:The use of nanofluids for various heat transfer applications has been a topic of intense research over the last decade. A number of studies to evaluate the thermophysical properties and single-phase heat transfer behavior of nanofluids have been reported. The current study is focused on the use of nanofluids in flow boiling applications, with CO2 and R134a used as the base refrigerants. CuO nanoparticles 40nm in size, and TiO2 nanoparticles 200nm in size are used to create partially stable CO2-based nanofluids. Stable nanofluids are created in R134a by mixing it with dispersions of surface-treated nanoparticles in polyolester (POE) oil (RL22H and RL68H). The particles (Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and ATO) at particle mass fractions from 0.08% to 1.34%, with particle sizes of 20nm and 40nm are coated with polar and non-polar surface treatments. The thermal properties of R134a-based nanofluids are measured. Thermal conductivity shows limited improvements; the largest increase of 13% is observed with CuO nanoparticles. Significant increases in viscosity, as high as 2147%, are observed due to CuO nanoparticles. Only the ATO nanofluid exhibited a decrease in the measured viscosity. Heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling of nanofluids are measured over a range of mass flux from 100 to 1000 kg/m2s, with a heat flux from 5 to 25kW/m2, and vapor quality up to 1. The test section is a smooth copper tube, 6.23mm in diameter and 1.8m in length. Average decreases of 5% and 28% are observed in heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling of CuO/CO2 and TiO2/CO2 nanofluids, respectively. For the R134a-based nanofluids, average decreases in heat transfer during flow boiling at the highest particle mass fraction are 15% and 22% for Al2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively. CuO nanoparticles exhibit an average decrease of 7% for particle mass fraction of 0.08%. An average increase of 10% is observed with ATO nanoparticles at a 0.22% mass fraction. Heat transfer performance deteriorates with increase in viscosity and particle number density. The performance is also worse for partially stable nanofluids that modify the test section surface. Modifications to the thermophysical properties is the primary mechanism that affects heat transfer performance during flow boiling of nanofluids; increased thermal conductivity enhances while increased viscosity and surface tension reduce heat transfer in nucleate boiling-dominated flows. A secondary mechanism of nanoparticles filling up the micro-cavities on test surface is also responsible for decreased heat transfer and is a strong function of particle number density.
Issue Date:2014-09-16
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/50727
Rights Information:Copyright 2014 Rahul Kolekar
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-09-16
Date Deposited:2014-08


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