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|Title:||A Study of the Implementation of the Swaziland Integrated Science Programme|
|Author(s):||Lichtenstein, James Marshall|
|Department / Program:||Education|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Abstract:||In 1974 the first year of the Swaziland Integrated Science Programme (SWISP) was introduced in the schools of Swaziland. SWISP was designed as an activity oriented science education program for the junior secondary schools.
As SWISP was developed, a strategy for the implementation of the program was also developed. Part of this strategy was to ensure that teachers physically implemented the program by carrying out the procedures outlined by the curriculum development team. An additional part of the strategy was that the teachers of the course gain an understanding of the philosophy of the program; the total strategy, therefore, was a combination of these two. This strategy involved: three years of writing, rewriting, pilot testing, and in-service workshops involving the Swaziland Ministry of Education, the sub-committee of the science panel, and the most important, science teachers throughout the country.
One result of this work was the SWISP teacher's manual, a multi-volume detailed description of the program which included information that focused on three basic areas: (1) Organization of classrooms and laboratories including equipment and materials necessary to teach SWISP; (2) Philosophy of the program; (3) Classroom procedures for teachers and students.
The central purpose of the study was to describe the present status of the three basic areas described in the teacher's manual as they are being practiced in the junior secondary schools of Swaziland according to the strategy for implementation.
Judgments regarding the implementation may be viewed on two levels. The first level is operational in which teachers attempt to carry out the recommended procedures set forth in the teacher's manual to the best of their abilities usually under some adverse conditions such as lack of equipment and materials and overcrowded classrooms.
The second and more comprehensive level of implementation of SWISP, while including the following of the procedures set forth in the teacher's manual, implies that the teachers have a commitment to the program which goes far beyond the first level of implementation. Teachers operating on this second level of implementation have a total understanding and commitment to the philosophy of the program and everything these teachers do in the classroom or laboratory reflects this commitment.
The design of the study was based on three methods of gathering data. First a questionnaire was designed in the United States and administered to the 167 science teachers involved with teaching SWISP in Swaziland. The second method used in the study was a series of short site visits at which time a checklist and an observation guide were completed. The third method was a series of intensive site visits which involved observation of classes and focused interviews with junior secondary science teachers.
From discussions with and observations of the teachers in the short and intensive site visits as well as from data collected from the questionnaire, it is evident that the majority of the SWISP teachers are carrying out the recommended procedures in the teacher's manual and are, therefore, operating on the first level of implementation. However, there were three problems mentioned by the science teachers and observed by the researcher: lack of space and equipment for small group work; lack of money for replacement and/or repair of equipment; and a feeling by the teachers that there is not enough time to revise (review) before the Junior Certificate examination.
Because of these problems it can be stated that the second and more comprehensive level of implementation has not been achieved.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-12|