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|Title:||The Effects of Carbadox, a Synthetic Antimicrobial Agent, on Growth, Nitrogen Balance, Protein Synthesis, Protein Degradation and Apparent Amino Acid Absorption in The Growing Pig|
|Author(s):||Bajjalieh, Nicholi Lloyd|
|Department / Program:||Animal Science|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Agriculture, Animal Culture and Nutrition|
|Abstract:||The effects of dietary carbadox (55 ppm), a synthetic antimicrobial agent, were evaluated in terms of rat and swine growth, nitrogen balance in swine, relative rates of protein synthesis and degradation in the rat and pig and an apparent amino acid absorption in the pig. A vitamin and mineral supplemented corn-soybean-meal diet served as the basal throughout. Dietary crude protein levels were maintained at a slightly deficient level.
Rate of gain of rats was not affected by dietary carbadox. Rats fed carbadox tended to consume less feed, thus gain/feed was usually increased. Growing pigs fed diets containing either 12 or 16% crude protein responded to dietary carbadox with an increased rate of gain (P < .01) and feed consumption (P < .05) when compared to the controls. Pigs on the higher protein diets consistently outperformed those offered the lower protein level diets. No interaction between level of protein and carbadox was noted. In a feeding trial in which pigs were individually fed, neither carbadox nor tylosin affected rate of gain, feed consumption or gain/feed. In a third feeding trial with growing pigs, one hundred forty-four animals were used to evaluate five commonly used antimicrobial products. Average daily gain and feed consumption were affected while gain/feed was not. The treatments maintained the same relative positions for both average daily gain and average daily feed. This ranking, in ascending order of response, follows: control, tylosin, Virginiamycin, carbadox, chlortetracycline, ASP-250.
Growing pigs were used to determine the effects of carbadox and crude protein level (12 and 16%) on nitrogen balance. Carbadox enhanced nitrogen digestibility and retention (P < .025). The higher protein level significantly increased (P < .001) all nitrogen related criteria. No carbadox by protein level interaction was apparent. Nitrogen balance in growing pigs was used to evaluate the effects of carbadox as it related to dietary lysine level. Carbadox enhanced the digestibility and retention of nitrogen (P < .01). At the higher level of lysine, carbadox had a lessened effect (P < .10) on nitrogen digestibility. Carbadox initially increased the ratio of nitrogen retained/nitrogen digested. This relationship was later reversed (P < .05). Two other nitrogen balance trials in which carbadox and tylosin were compared in the growing pig were conducted. In one trial both drugs enhanced nitrogen digestibility (P < .01) and had a nonsignificant positive effect on nitrogen retained and the ratio of nitrogen retained/nitrogen digested. In the second trial, neither drug had any effect on nitrogen balance criteria.
A pulse administered duo-labeled-amino acid technique was used to evaluate the effects of dietary carbadox on net incorporation of labeled amino acid and relative degradation of various tissue proteins. The values so obtained were intended for comparative purposes only. Two trials with rats and one with pigs were conducted. Treatment-related differences were noted for all three trials. In general, carbadox tended to increase both the net incorporation of labeled amino acid as well as the relative rate of protein degradation.
A surgical technique allowing for the direct monitoring of nutrient absorption was developed and applied. The procedure provided for the simultaneous monitoring of nutrient concentrations in blood from the hepatic portal vein and the vena cava and the rate of blood flow in the portal vein. This permitted calculations of a point in time estimate of apparent nutrient absorption from the intestinal tract. The effects of dietary carbadox on absorption of individual amino acids were evaluated via this procedure. Under our conditions, dietary carbadox had no significant effect on amino acid absorption within five days of its addition to the diet.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-13|