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Title:Study of the Flavor and Consistency Problem in Cheddar Cheese Made From Buffalo Milk
Author(s):Al-Fayadh, Mujahid Hamid
Department / Program:Food Science
Discipline:Food Science
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Agriculture, Food Science and Technology
Abstract:Twenty-One batches of buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheese were made. Each batch of curd was further divided into three lots, two of which were treated with fully ripened cheese slurry or food-grade enzymes (FGE) and the third was left untreated. The effect of four different coagulants, five starter cultures and two pasteurization processes on Cheddar cheese body and flavor characteristics was studied. The objective of this study was to identify the conditions which would permit the manufacture of Cheddar cheese from buffalo milk with the typical body and flavor characteristics found in Cheddar cheese made of cow milk.
The hard consistency of buffalo milk cheese was found to be due to its low moisture content when processed in the conventional manner. The solution found was a higher heat treatment of the milk which increased the moisture content and allowed normal syneresis of the curd to proceed when pressed. The resultant lower salt-in-moisture ratio promoted normal acid development and proteolysis.
Typical Cheddar cheese flavor development also improved with the higher heat treatment of the milk. Generally, the bitter flavor which is considered characteristics of buffalo milk cheese, was encountered when "bitter" strains of starter organisms were employed. Of the coagulants, the one made from Mucor meihie produced least bitterness.
Without the higher heat treatment of milk, the addition of slurry as a ripening aid was ineffective. FGE were more effective but the success of this approach was limited by the low moisture content of the cheese.
The free fatty acid (FFA) content was highest in cheese treated with FGE, followed by cheeses treated with cheese slurry and untreated samples. The higher heat treatment caused an appreciable increase in the FFA content of the cheese. Its effect on the conventionally processed control was greater than the addition of FGE.
All buffalo milk cheeses treated with FGE exhibited much higher rates of acid soluble protein (ASP) production than either untreated or slurry treated cheeses. As measured by ASP, cow milk responded differently to the coagulants from buffalo milk and both cow and buffalo milks responded differently to different coagulants. There was a relationship between the degree of ripening and the ASP content in untreated cheeses. Buffalo milk cheeses made with "non-bitter" starter developed more ASP than those made with "bitter" starter. Bitterness is believed to be caused by large peptides.
The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) study revealed significant differences in the number and concentration of breakdown products resulting from the experimental treatments. (alpha)- and (beta)- casein degradation and (gamma)- caseins formation was related to the variables employed. This study succeeded in differentiating "bitter" from "non-bitter" starters by the appearance of new components in bitter cheese. Extensive breakdown of (alpha)(,s)- and (beta)- casein occurred in both buffalo and cow milk cheeses with added FGE. However, slurry treatment had only a slight or no effect on the PAGE patterns in cheeses from both milks.
Issue Date:1980
Type:Text
Language:English
Description:290 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980.
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/66974
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8017910
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-13
Date Deposited:1980


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