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|Title:||Biochemical and Morphological Effects of Iron Deficiency And/or Chronic Ethanol Consumption During Pregnancy on the Maternal Organism and Fetal Growth and Development in Mice|
|Author(s):||El-Banna, Nefisa Hassan Metwally|
|Department / Program:||Human Resources and Family Studies|
|Discipline:||Human Resources and Family Studies|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Health Sciences, Nutrition|
|Abstract:||The present study was undertaken to determine the influence of chronic alcohol ingestion on the maternal organism and the fetus under conditions of nutritional adequacy and the effects of chronic ethanol ingestion and/or iron deficiency on reproductive performance as well as iron and folate metabolism. A mouse model, CBA/J strain, was employed, and morphological and biochemical assessments were performed.
In Experiment 1, the influence of chronic ethanol consumption, using isocaloric nutritionally-adequate liquid diets, was investigated. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that liquid diets, was investigated. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that liquid diets can be successfully used to study the effects of maternal alcoholism in mice. Chronic maternal alcoholism adversely affected maternal and fetal growth of CBA/J mice, the degree of this effect varied as a result of the level of ethanol in the diet. Total reproductive failure, low body weight, decreased daily caloric intake, high blood ethanol, low hemoglobin concentration and liver necrosis were noted in the group which had 30 percent of their calories derived from ethanol (EDC) suggesting that ethanol a this level was toxic. Ethanol fed to provide 10 or 20 percent of total kilocalories adversely affected maternal and fetal development as evidenced by increased liver total lipids as well as an increased percentage of resorption of implantation sites, decreased fetal weights and increased gross morphological fetal defects. In addition, similar fetal anomalies were present when ethanol was withdrawn prior to mating. Ethanol at the level of 20 percent EDC produced in fetal mice effects comparable to the fetal alcohol syndrome in human studies.
Experiment 2 was performed to determine the adverse effects of maternal iron deficiency and/or ethanol consumption on maternal and fetal mice. A 2 x 2 factorial design was employed, with ethanol-derived calories and iron as independent variable. Isocaloric liquid diets adequate or deficient in iron without or with ethanol (20% EDC) were used. Experiment 2 was also designed to determine the effect of maternal iron deficiency and/or ethanol consumption on folate metabolism. The results of this experiment indicate that hemoglobin concentration, percentage saturation of transferrin, red cell folate and dihydrofolate reductase activity were decreased by iron deficiency and/or ethanol consumption. Liver total lipids and alcohol dehydrogenase activity were increased by ethanol consumption. Iron deficiency had no effect on blood ethanol level or alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Iron deficiency and/or ethanol consumption adversely affected gestational performance in mice as evidenced by an abnormal pattern of gestation, increased fetal resorption and decreased fetal weights as well as an increase in the number of external and internal morphological and skeletal defects in fetuses. Positive correlations were noted between serum iron and red cell folates and between red cell folates and the percentage of live fetuses/litter and fetal weight while a negative correlation was noted between red cell folate and the percentage of fetal resorptions/litter.
Folate deficiency or altered folate metabolism secondary to iron deficiency and/or ethanol consumption prior to and during pregnancy were seen. These findings suggest that the adverse effects of iron deficiency and/or ethanol consumption on maternal CBA/J mice, their reproductive performance and fetuses were mediated via alteration of folate metabolism.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1981.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-14|
This item appears in the following Collection(s)
Dissertations and Theses - Human Resources and Family Studies
Graduate Dissertations and Theses at Illinois
Graduate Theses and Dissertations at Illinois