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|Title:||A Study of the Intermediate-Range Transport of Secondary Acidic Species|
|Doctoral Committee Chair(s):||Hopke, Philip K.|
|Department / Program:||Civil Engineering|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Abstract:||This research was undertaken to study the transport of acidic species formed from the transformation of gaseous emissions over an intermediate-range (100-200 km) by: (1) Selection, design and calibration of an instrument to separate submicron atmospheric particles, (2) Field sampling and chemical analyses of submicron particles to obtain elemental and ionic concentrations, (3) Determination of a tracer for coal-fired power plants by factor analysis of the chemical data, and (4) Calibration of a hybrid receptor model for the transport of sulfate from a coal-fired power plant.
A cyclone was selected for sampling only submicron atmospheric particles because of its sharp cutoff. Calibration obtained a 50% cutoff at an aerodynamic diameter of 1.2 $\mu$m at a flowrate of 22 lpm. Daily 4 hour sampling was conducted between 12 noon and 4 pm at Bondville, IL. Submicron atmospheric particles collected on Zefluor teflon filters, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for trace elements and then by ion chromatography for sulfate and nitrate.
Eight hour back trajectories were calculated for the sampling days to segregate the 124 samples, collected between April 2 and October 8, 1986, into 10 wind-directional subsets. A subset of 21 samples and 11 species corresponding to the direction of Kincaid and Springfield power plants, located west-south-west of Bondville, was selected. Target transformation factor analysis identified three sources and provided their mass apportionment and corresponding fractional contributions. Two of the sources, primary particles with a strong correlation between Se and W and regional sulfate, were used in the calibration of a hybrid receptor model.
A linear relationship is observed between the primary particles and intermediate-range sulfate. Because of over-prediction of primary particles and/or under-prediction of intermediate-range sulfate, a calibration factor was used to correct the target transformation factor analysis results. The calibration factor was obtained by comparing the observed and predicted SO$\sb2$. An emission ratio of SO$\sb2$ to primary fine particles, 19.7, predicted by the model compares well with the estimate, 17.4, obtained from an emission inventory of sources in the sector.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1987.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-15|
This item appears in the following Collection(s)
Dissertations and Theses - Civil and Environmental Engineering
Graduate Dissertations and Theses at Illinois
Graduate Theses and Dissertations at Illinois