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|Title:||Effects of Ammoniation, Ensiling and Sulfur Fertilization on Phenolic Composition of Gramineous Cell Walls and Their Digestion by Ruminants (Fescue)|
|Author(s):||Chestnut, Allan Bruce|
|Department / Program:||Animal Science|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Agriculture, Animal Culture and Nutrition|
|Abstract:||The objective of this research was to determine effects of alkali chemicals, ensiling and sulfur (S) fertilization on phenolic composition of grass cell walls and on nutrient digestion by cattle.
In the first experiment, concentrations of alkali-labile p-coumaric (PCA) and ferulic acid (FA) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hay were reduced 48 and 67%, respectively, after treatment with anhydrous ammonia (AA). Apparent total tract digestibilities of vanillin, PCA and FA were greater (P $$.05) when steers were fed ad libitum. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibilities by steers were greater (P $<$.001) when steers were fed ammoniated hay. Increased intake of ammoniated hay appeared to be due to increases in both rate and extent of ruminal digestion. A second experiment examined effects and interactions among AA, urea and ensiling treatments on composition and in situ digestion of tall fescue. Urea was as effective as AA for alkaline treatment of hay reconstituted to 50% moisture and ensiled. Urea added to hay was not hydrolyzed. Urea was less effective than AA at improving digestibility and reducing phenolic concentrations in silage. More ammonia from urea hydrolysis may have been tied up with organic acids in the silage vs reconstituted hay.
Tall fescue and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were fertilized with 0 and 132 kg/ha of S. Fertilization had no effect on phenolic constituents of tall fescue, but concentrations of alkali-labile PCA and FA and of nitrobenzene-oxidized phenolics were less in S-fertilized vs non-fertilized orchardgrass. Also, digestibility of nitrobenzene-oxidized phenolic aldehydes was greater (P $<$.05) in S-fertilized vs non-fertilized orchardgrass. Fertilization had no effect on in vivo digestion of fescue but did improve digestion of orchardgrass.
Phenolic composition and nutrient digestion were shown to be altered by both ammonia treatment of harvested grass and, in one case, S-fertilization of grass.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1987.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-15|