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Title:Effects of Alcohol, Heat, and Lipid Treatment of Soybean Meal on Nitrogen Utilization by Ruminants
Author(s):Lynch, Gary Lee
Department / Program:Animal Science
Discipline:Animal Science
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Animal Culture and Nutrition
Abstract:Soybean meal (SBM) was treated with aqueous alcohols and/or lipids to study treatment effects on SBM nitrogen (N) utilization by ruminants. In situ N disappearance at 2, 4 and 6 h was reduced (P $<$.05) when SBM was treated with 85% v/v isopropanol or 87.7% isopropanol compared to untreated SBM (UT), with no differences in rate of N disappearance between 2 and 12 h due to SBM treatment. No improvements in N retention, absorption or digestion were seen when isopropanol treated SBM was fed to 20 kg lambs compared to UT. When SBM was treated with 70% ethanol at 23 C (ET-23) or 80 C (ET-80), 10% coconut oil (CO) or 10% tallow (T) or a combination of 70% ethanol at 80 C with 10% coconut oil (ET-CO) or 10% tallow (ET-T), nitrogen solubility was lowest (P $<$.01) for ET-80, ET-CO and ET-T with N solubility of ET-23 being lower (P $<$.05) than UT. In situ N disappearance was lowest (P $<$.01) after 3, 6, 9 and 18 h for ET-80, ET-CO and ET-T, with rates of N disappearance between 3 and 12 h being lower (P $<$.05) for ET-80, ET-CO and ET-T (4.91, 4.75 and 4.90 %/h, respectively) than for ET-23, CO or T (11.42, 12.5 and 12.3 %/h) or UT (16.9 %/h). Chick bioassays revealed that N availability was not decreased when SBM was treated with 85 or 87.7% isopropanol, 40% propanol at 23 C, ET-80 or ET-23. Untreated SBM, ET-23, ET-80, urea and SBM treated with 70% propanol at 80 C (PR-80) were fed to sheep in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. No differences in flow of DM, total N or bacterial N at the duodenum were observed. Duodenal flow of non-ammonia, non-bacterial-N was higher (P $<$.07) for ET-80, ET-23, PR-80 and UT, than when sheep were fed urea. Soybean meal-N reaching the duodenum was not different among treatments while duodenal total and dispensible amino acid flow tended to be higher (P $<$.10) when sheep were fed alcohol-treated SBM. Mature steers were fed ET-80, UT or urea-casein, with or without 500 g/d ruminal NaCl infusion. Duodenal flows of total N and non-ammonia, non-bacterial-N were increased (P $<$.05) when steers were fed ET-80 compared to UT. Percent SBM-N escaping the rumen was greater (P $<$.05) when steers were fed ET-80 vs UT and greater (P $<$.05) when steers were infused with NaCl. Duodenal flows of total, indispensible and dispensible amino acids were increased (P $<$.05) when steers were fed ET-80 instead of UT.
Issue Date:1987
Description:132 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1987.
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8721700
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-15
Date Deposited:1987

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