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Title:Performance of Ingredients in a Soybean Whipped Topping
Author(s):Chow, Edward T.S.
Department / Program:Food Science
Discipline:Food Science
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Agriculture, Food Science and Technology
Abstract:A liquid soybean whipped topping was developed; Illinois Soybean Beverage was used to substitute sodium caseinate as the protein source. Two-level fractional designs were shown to be efficient in systematically screening selected ingredients. Rapid cooling of the homogenized mix was the processing factor controlling overrun. A liquid soybean whipped topping model was derived based on the general trends obtained from the factorial study and literature data. Three emulsifier types were evaluated; a blend of hydrophilic and hydrophobic emulsifiers gave the best overrun and stiffness. The soybean model gave comparable performance to commercial caseinate whipped toppings.
Response surface methodology was used to analyze the soybean model and a similar caseinate model system. The major contribution of soybean solids was to improve foam stability. Soybean cell wall materials were functionally similar to CMC-coated microcrystalline cellulose and were responsible for the excellent stability. Partial removal of these fine particles significantly improved overrun and stiffness, yet maintained acceptable stability. Sodium caseinate significantly improved overrun, but showed little effect on stability. The increase of vegetable fat and sucrose improved foam stability but reduced overrun. Addition of Tween 60 significantly assisted in aeration.
Several general functional property tests had some value in preliminary selection of ingredients. Whippability test showed that sodium caseinate was an excellent whipping agent, especially at low temperature. The emulsion stability test showed that the improved of whipped topping stability by soybean protein or sucrose was due to the increased amount of aqueous phase immobilized on the prechurned whipped topping structure. Higher apparent viscosity of the emulsion also indicated better stability.
Feasibility of using Illinois Soybean Beverage to develop powdered and frozen whipped topping was determined. Temperature in the spray drier should be kept below the melting point of the fat used to avoid poor hydration of the powder. Frozen topping required the replacement of the soybean cell wall particles to prevent the formation of overly-hard texture during freezing and thawing.
Issue Date:1982
Type:Text
Description:142 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982.
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/70069
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8302835
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-15
Date Deposited:1982


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