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|Title:||Changes in the Rheological Properties Pungency and Color of Capsicums as Affected by Hot Sauce Processing Variables (Pickles, Chilli, Hot Peppers, Capsaicin)|
|Author(s):||Wijeratne, Wilmot Banda|
|Department / Program:||Food Science|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Agriculture, Food Science and Technology|
|Abstract:||Commercially, whole capsicum or capsicum mash is aged in high concentrations of salt or vinegar for long periods before hot sauce manufacture. The effect of aging on the yield, flow properties, suspension stability, pungency and color of pulp was investigated using Red Chilli variety capsicums.
Aging of whole capsicums in brine caused extensive leaching of fruit solutes. The leaching effect of salt brine was greater than that of acid brine. Capsicum mash was preserved against microbial spoilage with 10% salt or 3% acetic acid based on the natural moisture content of mash. Combined use of salt and acid substantially reduced their individual requirements for preservation and induced lactic fermentation in mash. Aging of mash was superior to aging of whole fruit and the acid medium was superior to the salt medium in terms of pulp yield. Use of pectin degrading enzyme in the salt medium significantly increased the pulp yield. However, enzyme treatment caused increased pseudoplasticity and decreased suspension stability in extracted pulp.
Major pungent compounds, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, were analyzed by Gas-Liquid Chromatography. In a cellulose model system, the degradation of pure capsaicin was favored by low water activity (aW) and low pH. There was slow degradation of pungent compounds during aging of capsicum pulp. The degradation rate was lower when salt/acid combinations were used as preservative compared to their individual use at high concentrations. The half life in the combination treatment (8% salt and 1% acetic acid) was 24 weeks at room temperature. Light and natural lipids synergistically accelerated the degradation of capsicum carotenoids in the model system. Color degradation was unaffected by aW of 0.50-0.90; but further increase in aW accelerated degradation. The aW and pH effects on color degradation in pulp were generally consistent with those observed in the model. Preservation with 8% acid caused higher degradation rates compared to preservation with 20% salt, where the half life was 40 weeks at room temperature. In general, high acidity was detrimental to pungency and color retention. High salt content favored color retention, while the combination of low salt and acid levels favored pungency retention.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1985.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-15|
This item appears in the following Collection(s)
Dissertations and Theses - Food Science and Human Nutrition
Graduate Dissertations and Theses at Illinois
Graduate Theses and Dissertations at Illinois