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|Title:||Identification and Elucidation of Factors Contributing to High Quality Beef Flavors|
|Author(s):||Hitzman, James Warren|
|Department / Program:||Food Science|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Agriculture, Food Science and Technology|
|Abstract:||A beef flavor with many of the desirable product attributes of beef extract was developed based on enzymatic hydrolysis and incorporation of the components of lean beef into a beef flavor. This product had a good flavor profile and was superior to synthetic beef flavorings. It lacked an intense beef flavor.
Skimming, centrifugation, blender grinding, and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated to remove fat from beef. A combination of skimming and grinding was found to reduce the lipid content to 3% (d.b.).
There were no nitrites or nitrates detected in beef extract nor was the addition of nitrites in the experimental product found to significantly improve flavor. Antioxidants were effective in controlling rancidity in the experimental product.
A second process was developed for preparation of beef flavor that was vastly superior to the earlier beef flavor products and even exceeded the flavor quality of beef extract. This process was 9.9 times more efficient than beef extract manufacture. This second process product contained 70% protein, 0.6% free fat, 4% NaCl, and 4% KCl. This beef flavor was used to investigate the effect of ingredients and product attributes on beef flavor development.
The warmed-over flavor (WOF) was not present in beef extract or the second experimental product. It could not be induced by accelerated oxidation in either product. Browning appeared to prevent WOF formation. Drum drying, spary drying, and oven drying were investigated to induce browning for flavor development in a high lipid beef flavor and were found to be less effective than concentration in an open steam jacketed kettle in producing a high quality product.
In sensory evaluation of the product from the second process containing varying ratios of sodium chloride to potassium chloride, samples with higher percentages of sodium chloride were generally preferred. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on flavor was not clear but it was found to cause a dramatic breakdown in the structure of intact muscle fibers.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1986.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-15|
This item appears in the following Collection(s)
Dissertations and Theses - Food Science and Human Nutrition
Graduate Dissertations and Theses at Illinois
Graduate Theses and Dissertations at Illinois