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Title:The Relative Effects of Four Types of Information Presentation on Learning a Multiple Degree of Freedom Skill
Author(s):Kernodle, Michael Wayne
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Carlton, Les G.
Department / Program:Kinesiology
Discipline:Kinesiology
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Health Sciences, Rehabilitation and Therapy
Education, Physical
Abstract:Researchers had initially suggested that knowledge of results is the most potent form of information feedback. In fact, some were convinced that without knowledge of results no learning could occur. More recently it has been suggested that the appropriate form of feedback may be specified by the task criterion in that the information feedback must match the constraints imposed upon response output. Others have hypothesized that even the most effective form of feedback may not optimize the learning of a skill as well as the presentation of information concerning what to do to correct previous errors. The focus of this study is to examine the relative effects of four types of information presentation: knowledge of results, knowledge of performance, attention focusing cues and error correcting instructions, on learning a multiple degree of freedom skill, the overarm throw.
Treatment effects were examined by looking at distance thrown, a rating of the throwing form of each subject as seen by a panel of judges, and a rating of the throwing mechanics based upon an established scale. The data for the distance thrown and throwing form were analyzed using an analysis of variance with repeated measures. The throwing mechanics scores were evaluated using descriptive statistics.
Results of the distance scores showed no significance between group differences, but a noticeable trend for the cued and instructional groups to increasingly show higher scores relative to the knowledge of results and knowledge of performance groups. The form ratings showed significant learning by all groups, with significant differences between the group receiving instructions and all other groups. Attention focusing cues significantly enhanced performance relative to knowledge of results and knowledge of performance; while the difference between knowledge of results and knowledge of performance was not significant. The descriptive statistics dealing with throwing mechanics showed the same trends.
The results of this study strengthen the suggestion that for multiple degree of freedom skills knowledge of results is not the most potent form of information, nor must it be present for learning to occur. Also, videotaped replay is not an effective method of information presentation when not accompanied by a way to identify relevant aspects of the skill.
Issue Date:1988
Type:Text
Description:112 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1988.
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/71086
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8908730
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-16
Date Deposited:1988


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