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|Title:||Ion Filtration and Stable Oxygen Isotopic Fractionation Resulting From the Passage of Sodium-Calcium-Chloride Brine Through Compacted Smectite Layers at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures|
|Author(s):||Haydon, Paul Richard|
|Department / Program:||Geology|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Abstract:||A solution 5.00 molal in NaCl and 0.45 molal in CaCl(,2) was forced through 1.5 cm-thick clay plugs made of sedimented, randomly-oriented one-half to two micron diameter montmorillonite flakes. Two sets of experiments were carried out. In one set the confining pressure on the clay was 5000 pounds per square inch (psi) and the mean brine pressure was 2325 psi; in the other set the values were 10,000 and 4650 psi, respectively. In all experiments the differential pressure across the clay plugs was 2000 psi. Experiments were carried out at 20(DEGREES), 95(DEGREES), 140(DEGREES) and 180(DEGREES)C for the 5000 psi-compaction-pressure experiments and at 140(DEGREES)C for the 10,000 psi-compact-pressure experiment. Effluent concentrations reached constant values in one to three months.
At 5000 psi compact pressure the degree to which Ca('2+) is held back by the clay (filtration efficiency) was found to increase with increasing temperature over the temperature interval studied. The efficiency toward Na('+) decreased between 20(DEGREES) and 95(DEGREES) but increased through 180(DEGREES)C at a slower rate than Ca('2+). At 5000 psi compaction pressure the filtration efficiency toward Ca('2+) efficiency became greater. Thus, at 5000 psi compaction pressure the crossover point is near 160(DEGREES); at 10,000 psi compaction pressure it is below 140(DEGREES)C.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1983.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-16|