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|Title:||Toxicity and Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol; A Study in Swine, Cattle and Rats|
|Department / Program:||Veterinary Medical Science|
|Discipline:||Veterinary Medical Science|
|Degree Granting Institution:||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Subject(s):||Biology, Veterinary Science|
|Abstract:||The effects of oral deoxynivalenol (DON) on swine and the elimination pattern of DON and metabolites in lactating dairy cattle were determined. Results led us to the in vitro production of the de-epoxy metabolite of DON, DOM-1 and to metabolism studies using rat and swine hepatic microsomal preparations.
Fusarium graminearum that produces DON also produces zearalenone (Z), an estrogenic toxin. Three concentrations of DON:Z (0.7:0, 3.1:0.05, 5.8:0.1 ppm) were fed to 5-week-old castrated male and female crossbred piglets. Feed intake and weight gain varied inversely with the dietary levels of DON:Z in the diets during the first 4 weeks (P < .05). Castrated males exhibited a lower weight gain than females fed the same diet (P < .05). Necropsy revealed no significant pathology in either sex. DON was found in trace amounts (<50 ppb) in the plasma, urine and gastrointestinal contents.
Three lactating dairy cows were fed 66 ppm DON-contaminated diets twice daily, for 5 days. Free DOM-1, but no DON, was present in milk (26 ppb). Approximately 20% of the DON fed was recovered in urine and feces as DOM-1 (19%) and DON (1%). Large amounts of glucuronides of DON and DOM-1 were found in urine.
In vitro incubation of 1,500 mg DON (from corn extract) with rumen microorganisms yielded, after extraction and purification, 340 mg DOM-1.
DON and DOM-1 were incubated with rat hepatic microsomes and NADPH. No disappearance of DON or DOM-1 from the microsomal incubation were seen. These results suggest that DON is neither bioactivated to a more toxic product nor oxidized to a lesser toxic compound by the rat hepatic mixed function oxidase system. Likewise, DOM-1 was not reactivated or metabolized by this system. DON and DOM-1 glucuronidation was evaluated using in vitro systems (rat and swine hepatic microsomes) and DON glucuronidation was evaluated in vivo. No evidence of glucuronides of DON or DOM-1 was found.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1986.
|Date Available in IDEALS:||2014-12-16|
This item appears in the following Collection(s)
Dissertations and Theses - Veterinary Clinical Medicine
Graduate Dissertations and Theses at Illinois
Graduate Theses and Dissertations at Illinois