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Title:A Comparison of the Herbicidal Activity of Several Chloroacetamides and Their Effects on Protein Synthesis in Carrot and Soybean Cell Suspension Cultures
Author(s):Owen, Michael David K.
Department / Program:Agronomy
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Agronomy
Abstract:The herbicidal efficacy of acetochlor {2-chlor-N-(ethoxymethyl)-6'-ethyl-O-acetoluidide}, alachlor {2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide}, metolachlor {2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide} and xylachlor {2-chloro-N-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)acetamide} were compared in field, growth chamber and cell suspension culture studies. In the field, herbicide phytotoxicity, efficacy on Setaria species and Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats. and crop yield were determined. Due to a large degree of variability among experiments and between years, no comparisons and experiments were made. Therefore, no attempt to establish an order of herbicidal activity among experiments was developed.
In growth chamber studies, Glycine max L. growth reduction responded to increasing herbicide concentration and decreasing temperature reflecting a reduced ability for herbicide metabolism. Growth reduction of 50% (Gr(,50)) was 9.0 x 10('-7) M, 8.2 x 10('-6) M, 1.6 x 10('-5) M and 2.7 x 10('-4) M for acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and xylachlor, respectively.
Five cell types were evaluated for growth reduction by acetanilide herbicides. Carrot cell suspension was most sensitive to all acetanilide herbicides while soybean cell suspension demonstrated no significant response. Gr(,50) for carrot cells were found to be 5.5 x 10('-7) M, 7.0 x 10('-7) M, 1.25 x 10('-6) M and 5.25 x 10('-6) M for acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor and xylachlor, respectively.
Protein synthesis of carrot and soybean cell suspension cultures was not effected by 0, 1, 2 and 8 hour preincubation with the acetanilide herbicides. In carrot cells, 5 mg/ml cycloheximide reduced protein synthesis by 85% within 15 minutes of treatment. No effect on protein synthesis by soybean cells was found with 5, 20 and 50 mg/ml cycloheximide treatment. Uptake of ('14)C-leucine by carrot cells was inhibited by 8 hour preincubation with acetanilide herbicides, while similar treatments enhanced uptake in soybean cells.
Issue Date:1982
Description:154 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982.
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8218534
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-16
Date Deposited:1982

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