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Title:Corn Production, Inorganic Nitrogen Distribution, and Soil Chemical Transformations Associated With Liquid Beef Manure Application Methods
Author(s):Sawyer, John Edward
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Hoeft, Robert G.
Department / Program:Agronomy
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Agronomy
Abstract:Despite being a popular application method, many producers reported crop growth and production problems when liquid manure was knife injected into soil. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of liquid beef manure application methods and nitrification inhibitors on corn (Zea mays L.) yield, plant N concentrations, and soil chemical transformations. Manure was knife (vertical) injected, sweep (horizontal) injected, and broadcast (with immediate incorporation) at 28 050 to 42 075 L ha$\sp{-1}$.
Compared to inorganic N application, corn grain yield was reduced with knife injection in two of four years. In those two years, nitrification inhibitors and supplemental inorganic N generally were both effective in increasing plant N concentrations and yield. Sweep injection and broadcast application resulted in plant N concentrations and grain yield equivalent to inorganic N application.
Decreased corn production with knife injection was related to cool and wet spring climatic conditions and increased distance between corn plants and knife injection zones. Corn planted in rows offset (parallel 0 to 76.2 cm) from the knife injection point had N concentrations at all stages of growth and grain yield that decreased in either a linear or quadratic trend with increasing distance. Apparent limited availability of N from the knife injection zone was responsible for the variable plant N concentrations and yield.
Conditions inhibitory to root growth were present for several weeks within laboratory simulated knife and field knife injected manure zones but were not present in the soil above or beside the zones. Inhibitory conditions included: NH$\sb3$ toxicity, as indicated by high concentrations of NH$\sb4\sp+$-N, high pH, and incipient toxic levels of NH$\sb3$(aq); anaerobiosis, as indicated by low Eh, high moisture content, and low O$\sb2$ and presence of CH$\sb4$ in the soil atmosphere; and NO$\sb2\sp-$-N accumulation. Under greenhouse conditions, corn roots avoided the manure zone for 26 days after injection.
Incubation of manure at various rates in a constant soil volume indicated that toxic conditions within knife injection zones were due to the large amount of manure contained in a small soil volume. Sweep injection, by decreasing the concentration of manure within the injection zone, reduced or eliminated the toxic conditions.
Issue Date:1988
Description:137 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1988.
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8823242
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-16
Date Deposited:1988

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