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Title:Controlled-Release Preemergence Herbicide Formulations for Annual Grass Control in Kentucky Bluegrass Turf
Author(s):Chalmers, David Robert
Department / Program:Horticulture
Discipline:Horticulture
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Agriculture, Agronomy
Abstract:Field, greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of starch xanthide (SX) sludge polymer (SP) and commercial formulations of benefin (N-butyl-N-ethyl-(alpha),(alpha),(alpha)-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine), oxadiazon {2-tert-butyl-4-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropyloxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-5-one}, and prosulfalin (N{{4-dipropylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl}sulfonyl}-S,S-dimethylsulfilimine) in the control of large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis (L.)) turf.
Turf injury increased from use of SP formulations while SX formulations decreased and/or delayed injury and provided control comparable to individual commercial formulation applications. Coarse SX benefin or prosulfalin granules caused less turf injury than fine granules while the opposite effect occurred with SX oxadiazon. Efficacy varied with SX formulation, herbicide, granule size and year.
Field evaluation of SX benefin granules varying in crosslinking agent and/or degree of substitution did not produce significant differences in efficacy. However, in greenhouse trials formulation control differences were obtained when SX benefin formulations were surface applied to sandy and silt loam soils after which large crabgrass was sown 1, 21, 42 and 63 days following benefin application. The SX and commercial formulation both provided excellent control of the initial seeding on both sand and silt loam media. Three SX benefin formulations controlled the 21 day seeding better than the commercial formulation on soil while there was no difference for the 42 and 63 day seeding dates. All SX benefin formulations controlled the 21 and 42 day seedings on sand better than the commercial formulation. Fe('3+)-SX matrices persisted to extend this benefit to the 63 day seeding.
Light microscopic examination of 20 (mu) cross-sections of SX granules proved adequate for determining benefin distribution in SX granules. Detection of differences relating to SX formulation variables could not be determined using light or scanning electron microscopy.
Laboratory studies with SX encapsulated 14-C benefin indicated fine granules release benefin faster than coarse granules. SX 14-C benefin release was altered by SX granule water imbibition and varying solvent characteristics. Temperature differences during the period of water imbibition had no effect on benefin release.
Issue Date:1983
Type:Text
Description:115 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1983.
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/71773
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI8324526
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-16
Date Deposited:1983


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