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Title:Light Enhanced Toxic/tumorigenic Potential of Trinitrotoluene (Tnt) and Analogs
Author(s):Johnson, Larry Richard
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Schaeffer, David J.
Department / Program:Veterinary Medical Science
Discipline:Veterinary Medical Science
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Biology, Ecology
Health Sciences, Toxicology
Environmental Sciences
Abstract:The acute toxicity of TNT, 2-amino,-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A) and 4-amino,-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A) to Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox reagent), Daphnia magna (daphnia), and Dugesia dorotocephala (planaria) was enhanced by near-ultraviolet light (nUV) coexposure. The light enhanced toxicity of TNT, 2A and 4A must be considered to fully evaluate the environmental hazards of these compounds. The 2A and 4A metabolites of TNT were toxic at environmentally relevant concentrations and their production during biological degradation of TNT related waste must be considered. Binary mixtures of TNT, 2A or 4A demonstrated a more than additive toxicity towards the Microtox reagent with nUV coexposure. 2A and 4A also proved to be developmental toxicants towards the planarian at very low concentrations and this developmental toxicity was further enhanced by nUV coexposure. The planarian, but not the daphnid, can metabolize TNT to 2A and 4A, as can plants, mammals and microorganisms. The production of 2A and 4A by activated sludge digestion and/or other biota in the environment must be considered since these metabolites can be more toxic than TNT. Female rats can more effectively metabolize TNT than males and the observation of cancer only in female rats could be the result of a sex specific difference in TNT metabolism. An environmental risk assessment for TNT must include consideration of sunlight coexposure, the species exposed, exposure concentrations of TNT and metabolites and toxicological endpoints including lethality, and developmental toxicity.
Issue Date:1992
Type:Text
Description:159 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1992.
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/72555
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI9305569
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-17
Date Deposited:1992


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