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Title:Validation of the Planarian Bioassay With Defined Mixtures and Testing Against Other Bioassays With Contaminated Samples From Pakistan
Author(s):Tehseen, Waheeda Mani
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Hansen, L.G.,
Department / Program:Veterinary Medical Science
Discipline:Veterinary Medical Science
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Health Sciences, Toxicology
Environmental Sciences
Abstract:The main objectives of this study were to: (a) develop the planarian model to assess toxicologic effects caused by pure chemicals and chemical mixtures; (b) assess chemical contamination in environmental samples from selected areas in Pakistan where industrial contamination was suspected; (c) test the sensitivity of the planarian model and other bioassays to contaminated environmental samples and, in turn, assess the toxicity of the contaminants in the samples.
To accomplish the first objective, planarians were used in bioassay for the toxic effects of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 28, 110 and 126, as well as Aroclor 1254) alone, as well in combination. Consistent, reproducible and dose-dependent lesions were observed, and the model was considered sufficiently sensitive to be tested on more complex samples from polluted sites. Planaria which survived despite these lesions exhibited aberrant morphogenesis, but the resultant developmental abnormalities were eventually shed. Neoplasia was not confirmed in these lesions.
To accomplish the second objective, a 30-40 km reach of Deg Nullah, a contaminated stream, and Kasur fields in the Punjab Province of Pakistan were sampled. The water quality of each sample was assessed at the Pakistan Council of Scientific Industrial Research (PCSIR) laboratories. The samples were also shipped to the University of Illinois for further study. Analysis of organochlorinated compounds and 26 elements were accomplished on electron capture gas liquid chromatography (EC-GLC) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), respectively.
Samples from Deg Nullah were highly contaminated with heavy metals (especially mercury), salts, and organochlorinated pesticides. Samples from the upper reaches of Deg Nullah and Kasur-1 sites were more contaminated than the those from the lower reaches of Deg Nullah and Kasur-2 sites.
Toxicity of these samples was evaluated using planarian, root elongation, Microtox, and house fly bioassays.
In the planarians, various lethal lesions and abnormal growths were observed in animals exposed to contaminated environmental samples. These lesions were similar in characteristics to those in the previous PCB/Cd study.
The severity of responses in bioassays were correlated with the results of chemical analyses. The planarian bioassay was more sensitive than the Microtox, house fly longevity and root elongation tests.
Issue Date:1993
Description:437 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1993.
Other Identifier(s):(UMI)AAI9329180
Date Available in IDEALS:2014-12-17
Date Deposited:1993

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