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Title:Early-age hydration and volume change of calcium sulfoaluminate cement-based binders
Author(s):Chaunsali, Piyush
Director of Research:Mondal, Paramita
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Mondal, Paramita
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Struble, Leslie J.; Lange, David A.; Hindi, Riyadh
Department / Program:Civil & Environmental Eng
Discipline:Civil Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement
Early-Age Expansion
Expansive Cement
Thermodynamic Modeling
Abstract:Shrinkage cracking is a predominant deterioration mechanism in structures with high surface-to-volume ratio. One way to allay shrinkage-induced stresses is to use calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement whose early-age expansion in restrained condition induces compressive stress that can be utilized to counter the tensile stresses due to shrinkage. In addition to enhancing the resistance against shrinkage cracking, CSA cement also has lower carbon footprint than that of Portland cement. This dissertation aims at improving the understanding of early-age volume change of CSA cement-based binders. For the first time, interaction between mineral admixtures (Class F fly ash, Class C fly ash, and silica fume) and OPC-CSA binder was studied. Various physico-chemical factors such as the hydration of ye’elimite (main component in CSA cement), amount of ettringite (the main phase responsible for expansion in CSA cement), supersaturation with respect to ettringite in cement pore solution, total pore volume, and material stiffness were monitored to examine early-age expansion characteristics. This research validated the crystallization stress theory by showing the presence of higher supersaturation level of ettringite, and therefore, higher crystallization stress in CSA cement-based binders. Supersaturation with respect to ettringite was found to increase with CSA dosage and external supply of gypsum. Mineral admixtures (MA) altered the expansion characteristics in OPC-CSA-MA binders with fixed CSA cement. This study reports that fly ash (FA) behaves differently depending on its phase composition. The Class C FA-based binder (OPC-CSA-CFA) ceased expanding beyond two days unlike other OPC-CSA-MA binders. Three factors were found to govern expansion of CSA cement-based binders: 1) volume fraction of ettringite in given pore volume, 2) saturation level of ettringite, and 3) dynamic modulus. Various models were utilized to estimate the macroscopic tensile stress in CSA cement-based binders without taking into account the viscoelastic effects. For the first time, model based on poromechanics was used to calculate the macroscopic tensile stress that develops in CSA cement-based binders due to crystallization of ettringite. The models enabled a reasonable prediction of tensile stress due to crystallization of ettringite including the failure of an OPC-CSA binder which had high CSA cement content. Elastic strain based on crystallization stress was calculated and compared with the observed strain. A mismatch between observed and calculated elastic strain indicated the presence of early-age creep. Lastly, the application of CSA cement in concretes is discussed to link the paste and concrete behavior.
Issue Date:2015-04-22
Rights Information:Copyright 2015 Piyush Chaunsali
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-07-22
Date Deposited:May 2015

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