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Title:Effects of origin on the nutritional value of soybean meal
Author(s):Peper, Kelly Marie
Director of Research:Stein, Hans H.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Stein, Hans H.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Parsons, Carl M.; Shike, Daniel W.; Lindemann, Merlin D
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):broilers
composition
digestibility
pigs
soybean meal
Abstract:To determine the effect of origin on the nutritional value of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs or broilers, 6 experiments were conducted. The sources of SBM used in Exp. 1, 2, and 3 were the same and were procured from crushing facilities throughout the U.S. For analysis, crushing plant locations were separated into 4 zones: 1) northern growing area (MI, MN, and SD), 2) eastern growing area (GA, IN, and OH), 3) western growing area (IA, MO, and NE), and 4) IL. The objective of Exp. 1 was to determine concentrations of DE, ME, and NE in SBM produced in different areas of the United States when fed to growing pigs. Results indicated that the SBM from Zone 2 had a tendency (P < 0.10) to have greater GE than SBM from Zones 1 and 3, and there was also a tendency (P < 0.10) for a greater concentration of ether extract in SBM from Zone 3 compared with the concentration of ether extract in SBM from Zone 4, but there were no differences among SBM from Zones 1, 2, and 3. The DE, ME, and NE were 4,343, 4,098, and 2,534 kcal/kg DM; 4,319, 4,117, and 2,497 kcal/kg DM; 4,135, 3,926, and 2,391 kcal/kg DM; and 4,248, 4,039, and 2,448 kcal/kg DM for SBM from Zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility of GE were not different among diets containing SBM from the 4 zones. Regardless of growing area, GE, DE, ME, and NE were not different for SBM from the northern or eastern growing areas or from Illinois, but DE, ME, and NE were less (P < 0.05) in SBM from the western growing area. The objective of Exp. 2 was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in SBM produced in different regions of the United States when fed to growing pigs. Results indicated there was a tendency (P < 0.10) for a reduction in the concentration of dispensable AA for SBM from Zone 2 compared with SBM from Zone 3. The concentration of CP in SBM from Zone 2 and 4 were greater (P < 0.05) than the CP for SBM from Zone 3, but not different from the CP of SBM from Zone 1. Soybean meal from Zone 4 had the least (P < 0.05) AID and SID of CP compared with SBM from the other zones. There was also a tendency (P < 0.10) for SBM from Zone 3 to have a greater mean SID for all indispensable AA than SBM from the Zones 2 and 4. The average SID of dispensable AA and of total AA was also greater (P < 0.05) for SBM from Zone 3 compared with SBM from Zone 2. However, if calculated as g digestible AA per kg of SBM, very few differences were observed, indicating that the protein value is not different for SBM sourced from different regions of the U.S. The objective of Exp. 3 was 1) to determine if the area in which soybeans are grown influence the concentration of P, phytate, and macro- and micro-minerals in the SBM produced from the beans, and therefore, also influence the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in SBM, and 2) to test the hypothesis that inclusion of microbial phytase will increase the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM. Results indicated that the total concentration of P was 0.63, 0.65, 0.67, and 0.64% for SBM from Zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and there was a tendency (P < 0.10) for a reduced concentration of P in SBM from Zone 1 compared with SBM from Zone 3. There was an increase (P < 0.05) for ATTD and STTD of P when phytase was included in the diets, and there was also a tendency (P < 0.10) for SBM from Zone 3 to have values for ATTD and STTD of P that were less than SBM from Zone 4. The ATTD of Ca for SBM from Zone 2 was less (P < 0.05) compared with SBM from Zones 1 and 4, but was not different from that of SBM from Zone 3. The objective of Exp. 4 was to determine the AID and SID of AA by weanling pigs in 4 sources of fermented SBM (FSBM A, B, C, and D) and to compare these values to the digestibility of AA in conventional SBM, fishmeal, and poultry by-product meal (PBM). The CP in conventional SBM was 49.94% and ranged from 51.70 to 59.04% in the 4 sources of fermented SBM. The AID and SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in fermented SBM B compared with the other ingredients; however, conventional SBM and fermented SBM C and D had greater (P < 0.05) AID of CP compared with FSBM A, PBM, or fishmeal. The average AID and SID of indispensable AA, dispensable AA, and total AA in SBM and fermented SBM B and C were greater (P < 0.05) than in fermented SBM A and D, PBM, and fishmeal. It was concluded that concentrations of CP and AA are greater in fermented SBM than in conventional SBM, and AID and SID values may be greater in fermented SBM than in PBM and fishmeal. However, differences among sources of fermented SBM exist, which is likely a result of differences in processing conditions among sources of fermented SBM. Eight sources of SBM were used in Exp. 5 and 6, and these sources were procured from Argentina (2 sources; ARG1 and ARG2), Brazil (1 source), China (1 source), Thailand (1 source), and the United States (3 sources; US1, US2, and US3). The objectives of Exp. 5 and 6 were to determine the concentrations of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) as well as AA digestibility in the 8 sources of SBM when fed to broiler chicks. Concentration of GE was 4,156, 4,154, 4,154, 4,123, 4,125, 4,190, 4,206, and 4,094 kcal/kg (as fed basis) for SBM from ARG1, ARG2, Brazil, China, Thailand, US1, US2, and U3, respectively. The concentrations of CP and total AA were 45.28 and 44.50%; 45.35 and 44.22%; 47.73 and 45.91%; 48.67 and 47.69%; 47.66 and 45.49%; 46.66 and 45.24%; 47.20 and 44.72%; and 47.18 and 46.22% for SBM from ARG1, ARG2, Brazil, China, Thailand, US1, US2, and US3, respectively. The AMEn was less (P ≤ 0.05) in ARG1 and ARG2 compared with SBM from China, Thailand, US1, and US2. However, no differences in AMEn among SBM from China, Thailand, or the U.S. were observed. Soybean meal US3 had greater (P < 0.05) SID of total AA compared with SBM from US2 and Thailand, but the SID of total AA in the other 5 SBM sources was not different from that of US3. In conclusion, energy concentration was less for SBM produced in the western U.S. compared with SBM from other zones of the U.S., but the quantity and quality of protein in SBM was largely unaffected by the zone in which the SBM was produced. Likewise, the zone in which SBM was produced did not impact concentrations of P or phytate and only minor differences in digestibility of P and Ca were observed. However, regardless of production area, the digestibility of P in SBM was increased if microbial phytase was included in the diet. Differences in AMEn and SID of AA were also observed from SBM sourced from different countries, with SBM from Argentina having the lowest digestibility of GE and AA among sources. In conclusion, origin of SBM may affect its nutritional value when fed to growing pigs or broilers.
Issue Date:2015-04-23
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/78455
Rights Information:Copyright 2015 Kelly Peper
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-07-22
Date Deposited:May 2015


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