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Title:Topics in the Theory of Bose -Einstein Condensates With a Spin Degree of Freedom
Author(s):Ashhab, Sahel Shafiq
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Leggett, Anthony J.
Department / Program:Physics
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Physics, Condensed Matter
Abstract:We study several problems in Bose-Einstein condensates with internal degrees of freedom, and we find that this kind of condensates, which are usually referred to as spinor condensates, exhibit several phenomena that are qualitatively different from scalar (i.e. spinless) condensates. We analyze the ground state of a condensate with the constraint of maintaining a constant value of the total spin, and we find a number of different structures depending on the value of the total spin and the applied external magnetic field. We also study a certain type of measurement on spinor condensates in an attempt to distinguish between the so-called coherent and singlet states. We find that this kind of measurement cannot distinguish between the two states in question. We then consider a different experiment based on the interference between spinor condensate. It turns out that interference experiments cannot be used to distinguish between coherent and singlet states either. One of the interesting results regarding interference between two spinor condensates is that both the offset and visibility of the interference fringes vary from shot to shot, even if the initial conditions are identical in all the runs of the experiment. We then turn to the problem of condensing a gas of effectively spin 1/2 atoms. We argue that if spin relaxation mechanisms are slow enough, the condensate displays the phenomenon of fragmentation. The main difference of the fragmented state that we study and other fragmented states discussed in the literature is that this one is not caused by interatomic interactions, but rather by the constraint on the total spin of the system. We investigate the consequences of performing the experiment in a toroidal trap, and we find that, under certain conditions, the system spontaneously builds up a macroscopic value of orbital angular momentum. We finally discuss several problems related to the external Josephson effect. We derive simple equations of motion for the case of a two-component condensate that are identical to the extensively analyzed Bloch equations. We also find equilibrium points of the motion that are unstable in the spinless case.
Issue Date:2002
Description:145 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2002.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3070255
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2002

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