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Title:Colloidal and Polyelectrolyte Inks for Direct -Write Assembly of 3D Periodic Structures
Author(s):Gratson, Gregory Michael
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Lewis, Jennifer A.
Department / Program:Materials Science and Engineering
Discipline:Materials Science and Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Engineering, Materials Science
Abstract:Novel inks were developed for the direct-write assembly of 3D periodic structures with varying feature size. Specifically, two ink designs were pursued: (1) a model colloidal ink (feature size > 100 mum) and (2) a polyelectrolyte ink (feature size ∼ 1 mum). The rheological properties of both inks were specifically tailored for our direct-write assembly process, which involves ink deposition through a fine scale nozzle that is robotically controlled using a 3-axis stage. Central to this approach is the design of inks that are capable of flowing through deposition nozzles of varying size and then "setting" immediately to facilitate shape retention of the deposited features. In addition, the inks must contain a high solid volume fraction to minimize drying-induced shrinkage after assembly is complete. First, a model colloidal ink based on monodisperse silica microspheres was designed for 3D periodic structures. These colloidal inks suffer difficulties (e.g., nozzle clogging) when used to fabricate structures with feature sizes below ∼ 100 mum, so a different ink design was pursued based on polyelectrolyte complexes. These inks rapidly solidified upon deposition into an IPA/water coagulation reservoir, and the exact coagulation mechanism depended strongly on reservoir composition. The water/IPA ratio in the reservoir (83--88 % IPA) was carefully tailored to produce filaments that could maintain their shape while spanning unsupported regions in the structure, yet were flexible enough to adhere to the substrate or underlying layers. Several micro-periodic structures of varying design were fabricated, revealing the facile nature of our approach. 3D micro-periodic scaffolds were used to create photonic crystals with high refractive index contrast. Silica chemical vapor deposition was performed under ambient conditions to produce a thin inorganic layer around the polymer, which facilitated further high-temperature steps. The polymer was removed through burnout at 475°C, leaving behind a structure consisting of hollow silica tubes. Silicon chemical vapor deposition was then performed to produce 3D photonic crystals with large refractive index contrast. The effects of each processing step were monitored by measuring the position and intensity of the photonic band gap.
Issue Date:2005
Description:145 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3199005
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2005

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