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Title:Determining the Cause of Abnormal Leaf Development "Leaf Tatters" on White Oak (Quercus Alba L.), and Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra L.)
Author(s):Samtani, Jayesh B.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Masiunas, John B.
Department / Program:Natural Resrouces and Environmental Sciences
Discipline:Natural Resrouces and Environmental Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Horticulture
Abstract:Emerging leaves of white oak and to a lesser extent northern red oak can develop abnormally. This abnormality is referred to as leaf tatters. The cause of tatters has previously been linked to environmental stress, insect feeding, or herbicide drift. We theorized that herbicide drift was the cause of leaf tatters. Container-grown white oak seedlings were exposed to herbicides at low dose rates in a spray chamber. Leaf tatters occurred after treatment with acetochlor + atrazine and metolachlor at the leaf unfolding stage. Leaf tatters did not occur on seedlings treated with acetochlor or metolachlor at the swollen bud or expanded leaf growth stages, or on seedlings treated with 2,4-D, glyphosate, or dicamba. Both acetochlor and metolachlor belong to the chloroacetanilide herbicide group. A second study found that both white oak and red oak are susceptible to the chloroacetanilide herbicides at the leaf unfolding stage. When chloroacetanilide herbicides were applied with atrazine, the dominant symptoms were those of leaf tatters and the combination had an additive effect on leaf tatters injury, compared to chloroacetanilides alone. Atrazine alone did not result in leaf tatters symptoms. In both studies, later season growth was not injured and the leaves with tatters remained on the plant until the end of the growing season. In order to understand the differential susceptibility of white and red oaks in the landscape to leaf tatters, a comparative phenology study was conducted at multiple sites in Urbana. The red oak expanded leaf stage occurred earlier during the Julian calendar year than the same stage in white oak. The duration in number of days between phenological events however was similar between the two oak species. The earlier emergence of the leaves on red oak could play a role in explaining why leaf tatters are less common on red oak than white oak. Attempts made to isolate quality RNA (Total Ribonucleic acid) from white oak leaves for future molecular studies, gave limited success, with the protocol described by Iandolino et al. (2004) for grape (Vitis vinifera L.) RNA extraction being the most effective.
Issue Date:2008
Description:129 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2008.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3314881
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2008

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