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Title:Interactions Between Nutrition and Health or Stress in Poultry
Author(s):Persia, Michael Edward
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Carl Parsons
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Animal Culture and Nutrition
Abstract:Four experiments were carried out to determine the effects of dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) level in chicks exposed to heat stress (HS). The results indicated that the NPP requirement for growth of 8- to 22-d old chicks may be reduced by high temperatures (37 C). A NPP deficiency, however, may result in increased mortality in older chicks exposed to an acute increase in temperature. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary NPP in laying hens exposed to HS. The results generally indicated that there were no interactions between dietary NPP and HS (35 C) for feed intake, egg production and mortality. Subjecting hens fed a P-deficient diet to an acute HS (38 C), however, did increase the incidence of severe heat distress. Four experiments were carried out with chicks to determine any growth promoting effects and toxicity estimates for new Zn (basic zinc chloride) and Cu (basic copper chloride) sources. Minimum toxic estimates of Zn and Cu for chick weight gain were 1,720 mg supplemental Zn/kg and 642 mg supplemental Cu/kg, respectively. Further evaluation suggested that the minimal toxic level of Cu was different between crossbred and commercial broiler chicks. The levels of Zn and Cu evaluated in this study were not effective for growth promotion. Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary ingredients on weight gain, MEn and amino acid digestibility in chicks infected with coccidiosis. The results indicated that coccidiosis infection (Eimeria acervulina) reduced MEn and amino acid digestibility in chicks and that the coccidiosis effect was influenced by diet composition, type of infection (acute v. chronic) and timing of excreta collection after infection. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the interrelationship of ascorbic acid, cysteine and Zn for amelioration of dietary Cu toxicity in chicks. Ascorbic acid, cysteine and Zn were all effective at reducing liver Cu in chicks fed excess Cu, and combinations of the three may be more effective than individual additions. The results of this dissertation show that dietary nutrient levels and composition can affect responses to environmental or disease stress in chicks and laying hens.
Issue Date:2003
Description:147 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2003.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3086158
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2003

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