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Title:Utilization of Amino Acids in Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) by Pigs and Poultry and the Use of Reactive Lysine Procedures to Evaluate DDGS Quality
Author(s):Pahm, Ameer Alolod
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Hans-Henrik Stein
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):Agriculture, Animal Culture and Nutrition
Abstract:Five experiments were conducted to investigate aspects of AA digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and the use of in vitro procedures to predict Lys utilization in DDGS by growing pigs and poultry. In Exp. 1, the effect of regional source of DDGS (IL, MN, KY), addition of solubles to DDGS (DDG vs. DDGS) and type of facility producing DDGS (ethanol plants vs. a beverage plant) on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA was investigated using ileal cannulated pigs. Results showed that SID of AA among DDGS sources within a region varies as much as DDGS sourced across regions. The SID for Lys in DDGS from a beverage plant was greater (P < 0.05) than the SID of Lys in DDGS from dry-grind ethanol plants. Most AA in DDG had a greater (P < 0.05) SID compared with DDGS. In Exp. 2, optimal conditions for guanidination to convert unbound (i.e., reactive) Lys to homoarginine of DDGS were initially established to improve the accuracy of measuring the amount of reactive Lys in DDGS by homoarginine procedure. Optimum conditions for guanidination of DDGS and ileal digesta were at 3 and 1 d of incubation, respectively, using 0.6 M O-methylisourea with a pH between 11 and 12. In Exp. 3, the quantity of reactive Lys in 33 sources of corn DDGS was measured and was used to predict the concentration of SID Lys in DDGS fed to growing pigs. The effect of solubles in DDGS on the concentration of reactive Lys was also investigated using 4 ratios of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) to wet distillers grain (WDG) that was freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 50, 75, or 100°C. Only 74.1% of total Lys was reactive in the 33 sources of DDGS. The concentration of SID Lys in DDGS was correlated with the concentration of reactive Lys (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.05). It was concluded that reactive Lys may be used as an in vitro procedure to predict the SID of Lys in DDGS. Addition of CDS was found to exacerbate the negative effects of heating on the concentration of total Lys and reactive Lys in DDGS. The implication of this is that addition of CDS during DDGS production should not be excessive. In Exp. 4, it is hypothesized that the conventional procedure to measure SID of Lys in DDGS fed to pigs may overestimate the amount of digestible Lys because this procedure does not completely distinguish between reactive Lys and unreactive Lys, although only reactive Lys is bioavailable. Ileal digestibility of Lys in DDGS estimated using reactive Lys or conventional ileal digestibility procedure was, therefore, measured using cannulated growing pigs. The average SID of reactive Lys was 66.9%, which is close to the average SID of total Lys (66.5%). However, the concentration of SID reactive Lys (3.9 g/kg) was lower (P < 0.05) than the concentration of SID total Lys (5.1 g/kg). It was concluded that the conventional procedure may over-estimate the concentration of digestible Lys in DDGS, and measurement of digestible reactive Lys may more accurately estimate Lys available to the pig. In Exp. 5, the concentration of standardized digestible (SDD) Lys in DDGS was measured using cecectomized roosters and these values were compared the relative bioavailable Lys in DDGS measured in chicks. Two in vitro procedures (reactive Lys and Hunterlab color score) were also used to predict the concentration of SDD Lys and bioavailable Lys in DDGS. Concentration of SDD Lys among DDGS sources varied (P < 0.05), but the concentration of relative bioavailable Lys were similar among DDGS sources. The average concentration of SDD Lys in DDGS was not different from the concentration of bioavailable Lys (0.47% and 0.53%, respectively). The concentration of SDD Lys in DDGS was correlated (r2 = 0.84, P < 0.05) with the concentration of reactive Lys. Lighter color of DDGS was associated with a greater (r2 = 0.90, P < 0.05) concentration of bioavailable Lys. In conclusion, the concentration of SDD Lys in DDGS is closely related with the concentration of bioavailable Lys. Values for reactive Lys and the degree of lightness (L score) in DDGS may be used to estimate the concentration of SDD Lys and bioavailable Lys in DDGS fed to poultry.
Issue Date:2008
Type:Text
Language:English
Description:176 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2008.
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/83612
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3314863
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2008


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