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Title:Health and Nutrition of the Elderly in Botswana
Author(s):Maruapula, Segametsi Ditshebo
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Department / Program:Nutritional Sciences
Discipline:Nutritional Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to describe dietary patterns, evaluate dietary quality and adequacy of nutrient intakes for the elderly in Botswana. Many developing countries lack information on the health and nutrition status of the elderly, and Botswana is no exception. Secondary analysis and cross-sectional survey methods were used to obtain data for the study. Villages and towns were selected in three strata: urban, urban villages, and rural. In the secondary data analysis section of the study, 1086 elderly subjects were interviewed, while 99 were interviewed for the cross-sectional survey component of the study. The age range of the elderly was 60-99 years. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to obtain dietary and other information in both component studies. Diet was assessed through using a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Various statistical analysis techniques including analysis of variance t-test for independent samples, chi square tests for categorical variables, factor analysis and others were used. Dietary patterns obtained through factor analysis were subjectively named the meat and juice, vegetable and bread, beer, seasonal fruits and vegetables, and the candy, milk and tea patterns. Most elderly had poor diet (38%), a diet that needed improvement (59%), and only 3% had a good diet. The diet also lacked variety (10%). The contributions of protein, carbohydrate and fat to total energy were 15%, 66%, and 22%, respectively. Mean macronutrient intake differed significant by gender only for saturated fat (p < .038). Micronutrient intake differed by gender for vitamin A (p < .009), calcium (p < .01) and folic acid (p < .027). Consumption of adequate vitamin A was significantly associated with gender and cooking responsibilities. Self-health rating was also significantly associated with adequate consumption of vitamin B12 (p < .027), selenium (p < .001) and zinc (p < .009). Older persons in Botswana consumed a diet of poor quality according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI); only 3% of the elderly had a good diet. Nutrient intake for the elderly was inadequate in both energy and micronutrients.
Issue Date:2006
Description:161 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2006.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3242932
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2006

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