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Title:Glucooligosaccharides and Fructooligosaccharides Alter Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics in Animal Models and Human Subjects
Author(s):Flickinger, Elizabeth Anne
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Fahey, George C., Jr.
Department / Program:Nutritional Sciences
Discipline:Nutritional Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Agriculture, Animal Culture and Nutrition
Abstract:Certain nondigestible oligosaccharides have been shown to elicit prebiotic effects in the large intestine of healthy nonruminants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of two novel oligosaccharides, alpha-glucooliogsaccharide (GOS) and maltodextrin-like oligosaccharide (MD), using a dog model. Experiments also were conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of a well-characterized oligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), using dogs, human infants, and human toddlers. The first experiment measured in vitro fermentation of GOS and MD and also evaluated their effects on nutrient digestibility, gut microbial populations, and fecal characteristics in vivo. The second experiment evaluated FOS supplementation of dogs consuming either plant-based diets or meat-based premium type diets to determine its effects on nutrient digestibility, microbial populations, and fecal quality and odor components. The third study tested vegetable sources of FOS supplemented to human infants and toddlers and measured their effects on fecal characteristics and bacterial concentrations. The fourth and final experiment further evaluated FOS-containing vegetables by characterizing their in vitro fermentation profile using fecal inoculum from human infants who were fed varying diets. Overall, these experiments demonstrated that low levels of supplemental GOS, MD, and FOS act as prebiotics in dogs and human infants and toddlers. These prebiotics act by positively influencing gastrointestinal characteristics, including microbial populations and fermentative end-products. These effects can be demonstrated with both synthetic and natural sources of FOS and are maintained even when a variety of diets is consumed (i.e., plant-based vs. meat-based). In contrast to traditional dietary fiber sources, FOS does not negatively affect nutrient digestibility or fecal quality of dogs or human infants or toddlers. Therefore, dietary supplementation of the oligosaccharides GOS, MD, and FOS positively affect colonic fermentation and microbial balance and may benefit the gastrointestinal tract health of dogs and human infants and toddlers.
Issue Date:2000
Description:197 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2000.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI9989997
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-25
Date Deposited:2000

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