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Title:Gibbsian Segregating Alloys Driven by Thermal and Concentration Gradients: A Potential Grazing Collector Optics Used in EUV Lithography
Author(s):Qiu, Huatan
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Ruzic, David N.
Department / Program:Nuclear Engineering
Discipline:Nuclear Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Engineering, Materials Science
Abstract:A critical issue for EUV lithography is the minimization of collector degradation from intense plasma erosion and debris deposition. Reflectivity and lifetime of the collector optics will be heavily dependent on surface chemistry interactions between fuels and various mirror materials, in addition to high-energy ion and neutral particle erosion effects. An innovative Gibbsian segregation (GS) concept has been developed for being a self-healing, erosion-resistant collector optics. A Mo-Au GS alloy is developed on silicon using a DC dual-magnetron co-sputtering system in order for enhanced surface roughness properties, erosion resistance, and self-healing characteristics to maintain reflectivity over a longer period of mirror lifetime. A thin Au segregating layer will be maintained through segregation during exposure, even though overall erosion is taking place. The reflective material, Mo, underneath the segregating layer will be protected by this sacrificial layer which is lost due to preferential sputtering. The two dominant driving forces, thermal (temperature) and surface concentration gradient (surface removal flux), are the focus of this work. Both theoretical and experimental efforts have been performed to prove the effectiveness of the GS alloy used as EUV collection optics, and to elucidate the underlying physics behind it. The segregation diffusion, surface balance, erosion, and in-situ reflectivity will be investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results show strong enhancement effect of temperature on GS performance, while only a weak effect of surface removal rate on GS performance. When equilibrium between GS and erosion is reached, the surface smoothness could be self-healed and reflectivity could be maintained at an equilibrium level, instead of continuously dropping down to an unacceptable level as conventional optic mirrors behave. GS process also shows good erosion resistance. The effectiveness of GS alloy as EUV mirror is dependent on the temperature and surface removal rate. The Mo-Au GS alloy could be effective at elevated temperature as the potential grazing mirror as EUV collector optics.
Issue Date:2007
Description:192 p.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2007.
Other Identifier(s):(MiAaPQ)AAI3270004
Date Available in IDEALS:2015-09-28
Date Deposited:2007

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