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Title:Effects of different water sources on MS2 and porcine rotavirus reduction in biosand filters
Author(s):Wang, Hanting
Advisor(s):Nguyen, Thanh H.; Liu, Wen-Tso
Department / Program:Civil & Environmental Engineering
Discipline:Environmental Engineering in Civil Engineering
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):biosand filters
MS2 and rotavirus reduction
divalent cations
long term usage
Abstract:Diarrheal diseases caused by pathogens remain a significant cause of death in developing areas, especially for children under the age of five. Biosand filters (BSFs) are a promising technology implemented worldwide that can effectively reduce levels of bacteria and bacteriophages. However, the efficacy of enteric virus reduction in BSFs has not be studied. Furthermore, how the water chemistry of the source water used in BSFs effects virus reduction is not clearly understood. In this study, three bench-scale BSFs were fed daily with groundwater or a cation-free buffered solution to determine MS2 and porcine rotavirus reduction as a function of filter depth, residence time, media ripening, and water source. An integrated cell culture and RT-qPCR assay was developed to quantify rotavirus reduction in water samples collected from the filters. Rotavirus reduction experiments performed in Newmark groundwater reached a cumulative average of 5-log10 (99.999%) reduction after 31 days, exceeding U.S. EPA and World Health Organization standards. Experiments with 1 mM NaHCO3 spiked with MS2 averaged 1.2-log10 reduction after 42 days, and there was not an increasing trend of reduction as a function of depth. Finally, MS2 experiments performed in groundwater reached a cumulative average of 5.36-log10 reduction after 684 days, but reduction did not increase as a function of depth as shown in a previous study. Overall conclusions include that 1) at the same filter age and using the same water source, rotavirus reduction was higher than what was previously seen with MS2, indicating that MS2 is a conservative surrogate for rotavirus, 2) MS2 was reduced to different extents in different water sources, demonstrating that water chemistry, particularly divalent cation concentrations, plays a role on MS2 reduction, and 3) residence time is crucial for increasing virus reduction in all experiments. This is also the first study to determine the efficiency of rotavirus reduction in BSFs, which is an essential first step in understanding the extent to which BSFs can reduce human enteric viruses, and hence decrease diarrheal disease incidences.
Issue Date:2015-12-09
Rights Information:Copyright 2015 Hanting Wang
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-03-02
Date Deposited:2015-12

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