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Title:Identification of the water quality factors which prevent fingernail clams from recolonizing the Illinois River—phase II
Author(s):Sparks, Richard E.; Sandusky, Michael J.; Paparo, Anthony A.
Contributor(s):Illinois Natural History Survey Division; Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Subject(s):Water resources development
Water resources development--Illinois
Aquatic ecology
Water pollution effects
Animal physiology
Fingernail clams
Sphaerium transversum
Musculium transversum
Suspended solids
Suspended sediment
Keokuk Pool
Mississippi River
Illinois River
Pollutant identification
Water pollution treatment
Water quality
Activated carbon
Pollution abatement
Water pollution sources
Food webs
Limiting factors
Secondary productivity
Aquatic productivity
Geographic Coverage:Illinois (state)
Abstract:Water samples taken from the Illinois River on 5 October and 22 April 1977 inhibited the beating of the cilia on isolated clam gills, within two hours of exposure. The April sample was significantly more toxic than the October sample. Sediment taken on 14 December 1970 from Quiver Lake, a bottomland lake which receives sediment from the Illinois River and where fingernail clams were abundant prior to a die-off in 1955-58, was toxic to isolated clam gills. A sediment layer from the 2.6-5.1 cm depth showed the greatest toxicity, the 0-2.5 cm depth the next greatest toxicity, and deeper layers showed significantly less toxicity. From 3 April to 8 May 1980, intact fingernail clams were exposed to raw Illinois River water (containing suspended sediment), clean well water, and raw river water subjected to three treatments: (a) sand filtration (b) sand filtration + carbon filtration (c) sand filtration + clinoptilolite filtration. After two weeks of exposure, clams in raw river water suffered significantly greater mortality (42.5%) than other clams. After six weeks of exposure, 62.5% of the clams in raw river water had died, the next highest mortality (47.5%) occurred in sand filtered water, and mortality in the other two treatments did not differ significantly from the well-water controls (24% mortality). The clams probably survived better in the treated water for two reasons: (1) clinoptilolite and carbon each removed ammonia, which is found in Illinois River water and which is toxic to fingernail clams (2) the additional physical filtration provided by the charcoal and clinoptilolite removed additional sediment, which contains unidentified toxic factors. Surviving clams grew better in river water and treated river water than in clean well water, probably because they fed upon fine organic matter which passed through the filters. The latter results indicate that the unidentified toxic factor acts directly on the clams, rather than indirectly by affecting their food supply. The rapid assay, using fingernail clam gills, and the deletion bioassay, where toxic components are selectively removed from raw water samples and the corresponding reduction in toxicity measured, are promising means of identifying effective treatments for complex wastes and polluted streams.
Issue Date:1981-03
Publisher:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Water Resources Center
Genre:Report (Grant or Annual)
Sponsor:U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey
Rights Information:Copyright 1981 held by Richard E. Sparks, Michael J. Sandusky, Anthony A. Paparo
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-04-20

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