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Title:Effect of raindrop impact and surface roughness on sheet flow
Author(s):Wenzel, Harry G., Jr.
Contributor(s):Wang, Raymond C.T.; Yoon, Yong Nam; Sturm, Terry; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Water resources center
Water resources center--Illinois
Hydrology and hydraulics
Impact (rainfall)
Numerical analysis
Roughness (hydraulic)
Shear stress
Sheet flow
Soil erosion
Transition flow
Geographic Coverage:Illinois (state)
Abstract:An experimental and analytical study was conducted to investigate the mechanics of sheet flow as it is affected by rainfall. Water surface profile data were taken in a laboratory flume using artificially generated rainfall and a hydraulically smooth surface. The one-dimensional spatially varied flow equation as developed from the momentum approach was then used to compute the boundary shear stress and subsequently a Weisbach type friction factor. It was found that the results below a Reynolds number of approximately 1000 could be expressed as f = C/NR where C increases with increasing rainfall intensity and surface slope. Velocity profile studies show that velocity in the surface region is retarded by the rainfall. Turbulence intensity measurements indicate that turbulence is generated at the surface due to the rainfall and also at the boundary for flow which would normally be laminar without rainfall. Spectral analysis of the turbulent measurements indicates that the rainfall shifts the turbulent energy to higher frequencies than would be the case without rainfall. Analysis of flow over rough surfaces taken by the Corps of Engineers shows that rainfall has little effect on resistance beyond the transition region and the transition point may be lowered by the presence of rainfall. A separate study of a single drop striking a stagnant water layer shows that the velocity and pressure field can be computed using a SyntheticCell-Fluid scheme to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for this case. A dimensionless maximum impact pressure model was developed and the velocity field and free surface configuration were studied. It was found that surface tension is significant, the diameter of the region of disturbance was approximately one inch, and that locally high shear stress are generated. These stresses could easily cause soil erosion.
Issue Date:1970-09
Publisher:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Water Resources Center
Genre:Report (Grant or Annual)
Sponsor:U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey
Rights Information:Copyright 1970 held by Harry G. Wenzel, Jr.
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-05-23

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