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Title:Complexes affecting the solubility of calcium carbonate in water—phase II
Author(s):Larson, Thurston E.; Sollo, F.W., Jr.; McGurk, Florence F.
Contributor(s):Illinois State Water Survey; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Water resource development--Illinois
Water resource development
Water quality
Potable water
Geographic Coverage:Illinois (state)
Abstract:The water utilities in this country have a tremendous investment in the miles of pipe, valves, and other appurtenances in the water distribution systems. Failure to protect these systems against corrosion and excessive scale formation could necessitate replacement of the distribution systems at an estimated cost of $25 billion. Calculation of the true equilibrium or saturation pH, pH, for calcium carbonate and adjustment of the water to that pH is essential to supply water of high quality and to avoid corrosion and scale formation in these water distribution systems. Experience has shown that in some cases the actual pH must be from 0.6 to 1.0 unit above pHs, as determined from the calcium and alkalinity analyses. Certain complexes may be responsible in part for this fact. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the dissociation constants of the complexes so that the optimum pH can be more accurately calculated. A titration method was used to measure the effects of complex formation on the pH of reaction mixtures and appropriate computer programs were developed to calculate the dissociation constants. Experimental procedures and results from the determination of dissociation constants for complexes of magnesium, calcium and sodium with carbonate, bicarbonate, hydroxide, and sulfate and a method to utilize these constants in calculating pHs in public water supplies are discussed.
Issue Date:1976-02
Publisher:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Water Resources Center
Genre:Report (Grant or Annual)
Sponsor:U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey
Rights Information:Copyright 1976 held by Thurston E. Larson, F.W. Sollo, Jr., Florence F. McGurk
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-06-29

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