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Title:Digestibility of calcium and digestible calcium requirements in pigs
Author(s):Gonzalez Vega, Jolie Caroline
Director of Research:Stein, Hans H
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Stein, Hans H
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Murphy, Michael R; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Dilger, Ryan N; Létourneau-Montminy, Marie-Pierre
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):digestible calcium
digestible phosphorus
microbial phytase
phytate
pig
Abstract:Seven experiments were conducted towards developing a system for determining digestible Ca requirements in growing pigs. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted to establish standard total tract digestibility (STTD) values of Ca in a number of feed ingredients without and with microbial phytase. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, monocalcium phosphate had the greatest (P < 0.05) STTD of Ca. The STTD of Ca in dicalcium phosphate was greater (P < 0.05) than in calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or in a sugar beet co-product, but no differences were observed among the STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.05) the STTD of Ca in the diets, but this was not the case in the Ca supplements. Results of Exp. 2 indicated that the STTD of Ca in fish meal increased (P < 0.001) if microbial phytase was used. Experiment 3 was conducted to determine the effect of fiber and soybean oil on the STTD of Ca, and to determine the effect of using a corn-based diet or a cornstarch-based diet on the STTD of Ca in fish meal. Results indicated that fiber increased (P < 0.001) the STTD of Ca, but the STTD of Ca was not affected by soybean oil. The STTD of Ca in the corn-based diet was greater (P < 0.05) than in the cornstarch-based diet, which indicates that corn-based diets need to be used to determine STTD of Ca in feed ingredient. Experiments 4 and 5 were conducted to determine the requirement of STTD Ca by 11 to 25 kg pigs. Six diets were formulated to contain 0.32, 0.40, 0.48, 0.56, 0.64, or 0.72% STTD Ca and 0.36% STTD P. Results indicated that the concentration of STTD Ca in the diets needed to maximize bone ash was 1.33 times the concentration of STTD P. Experiments 6 and 7 were conducted to determine the requirement for STTD Ca and STTD P by 25 to 50 kg pigs. A total of 20 diets were formulated to contain 0.13, 0.27, 0.42, 0.57, or 0.72% STTD Ca and 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47% STTD P. Results indicated that the concentration of dietary STTD Ca needed to maximize ADG and G:F was between 1.16 and 1.43 times the concentration of STTD P, but to maximize bone ash, dietary STTD Ca needs to be between 1.53 and 1.81 times the concentration of STTD P. In conclusion, diets for growing pigs may be formulated using values for STTD of Ca in feed ingredients, but, it is recommended that Ca digestibility of feed ingredients are determined in corn-based diets. If diets are formulated to meet STTD Ca and STTD P requirements, the utilization of both minerals is maximized. Additional research is needed to determine the STTD Ca requirements by pigs above 50 kg BW.
Issue Date:2016-03-02
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/90447
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Jolie Gonzalez Vega
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-07-07
Date Deposited:2016-05


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