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Title:Effects of hydroxy versus sulfate forms of trace minerals in milk replacer or starter on dairy calves through weaning
Author(s):LaPierre, Paul Andrew
Advisor(s):Drackley, James K.
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Dairy calves
Trace mineals
Abstract:Young dairy calves experience many stressors as they acclimate to their environment. These stressors can impede intake and subsequent growth, create a depressed immune system allowing for a greater risk of infection and disease, and ultimately raise the cost to rear these animals. Trace minerals (TM) have been supplemented in diets to allow for optimal intake, growth, and immunity if and when a response to a stressor is needed. Traditionally TM are supplemented in the form of either inorganic salts, such as oxides or sulfates, or in organic forms, such as proteinates or chelates. Limited data are available on the effect of supplementing TM in hydroxy form; therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate differences in intake, growth, and health status of calves fed milk replacer (MR) and starter grain supplemented with either sulfate or hydroxy sourced TM. Male Holstein calves (n = 64) < 1-wk-old were transported from a commercial farm to the University of Illinois Nutrition Field Lab facility. Upon arrival, calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of TM source in MR and TM source in starter grain in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed MR [28% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] at a fixed feeding rate (700 g/d of powder for wk 1, 950 g/d of powder for wk 2 to 6, and 450 g/d of powder for wk 7) and had ad libitum access to starter grain (22% CP) and water. Both MR and starter grain were supplemented with either sulfate or hydroxy TM. In MR Zn, Cu, and Mn were supplemented at 50, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively; starter grain was supplemented at 70, 17, and 60 mg/kg of Zn, Cu, and Mn, respectively. Calves were fed MR twice daily (0500 and 1630 h) and were weaned on d 49. Calves continued to have ad libitum access to water and starter until the end of the experiment at d 63. Body weights and conformation measurements were taken on all calves on a weekly basis. Milk replacer and starter intakes, respiratory scores, fecal scores, and any use of medications were monitored daily and recorded. Milk replacer and starter intakes were combined to calculate total intake. Blood was sampled at d 14, 28, and 56 immediately before feeding and 4 h post feeding. Blood plasma was used to evaluate concentrations of minerals, total protein, albumin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea nitrogen. Chemical analysis of feeds revealed significant differences in the total concentration of Zn between sulfate- and hydroxy-supplemented MR (P = 0.04) and starter grain (P < 0.01). Total concentration of Mn also differed (P = 0.04) between sulfate- and hydroxy-supplemented starter grain. Statistical analysis revealed a tendency for calves fed hydroxy-supplemented MR to have increased starter (P = 0.13) and total (P = 0.07) dry matter intake. No differences in intake of MR, starter grain, or total dry matter were observed for the interaction of MR and starter grain. Calves fed hydroxy MR had increased intakes of Zn (P = 0.01), Cu (P = 0.02), and Mn (P = 0.01). Calves fed hydroxy TM from starter grain also had greater intake of Zn (P < 0.01), but similar intakes of Cu and Mn compared with calves fed sulfate starter grain. Initial body weight and body measurements were not different among treatments (P > 0.15). Calves fed hydroxy MR had significantly greater final withers height than calves fed sulfate MR (P = 0.02). Calves fed hydroxy MR tended to be taller than those fed sulfate MR (P = 0.06); however, calves fed sulfate starter were taller than those fed hydroxy MR (P = 0.02). Blood mineral analysis indicated that overall Zn concentration was higher for calves fed hydroxy MR (P = 0.02) and was also greater on d 28 (P = 0.05). Overall Cu and Mn concentrations were not different (P > 0.15); however, Cu concentration tended to be greater on d 28 for calves fed sulfate MR (P = 0.09). Overall concentration of NEFA was greater in calves consuming hydroxy MR (P = 0.05). No differences in the overall concentrations of albumin, total protein, glucose, and urea nitrogen were detected (P > 0.15). Calves consuming hydroxy MR were 0.56 times as likely as calves fed sulfate MR to have an occurrence of scours (P = 0.02). Additionally, calves on treatment HS (hydroxy MR plus sulfate starter) were 0.41 and 0.45 times as likely as treatments SH (P = 0.01) and SS (P = 0.03) to have an occurrence of scours. A medicated event tended to be 0.53 as likely to happen for calves fed hydroxy MR compared with calves fed sulfate MR (P = 0.10). Calves on treatment HS tended to be 0.32 and 0.34 times as likely as treatment SH (P = 0.06) and SS (P = 0.07) to have a medicated event. The duration of a scour event was shorter for calves on treatment HS when compared with calves on treatment SS (P < 0.01). Additionally, calves on treatment HS had fewer cumulative days of medication compared with calves on treatment SS (P = 0.02). Findings from this study suggested greater Zn absorption in calves fed hydroxy MR, although this was confounded by greater Zn intake in those calves. It was concluded that calves fed hydroxy TM, specifically in the MR, consumed slightly more total dry matter and were healthier than calves fed sulfate TM.
Issue Date:2016-04-22
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Paul LaPierre
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-07-07
Date Deposited:2016-05

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